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The Age of Metternich 1815-1848. The Congress of Vienna & Its Impact on Europe. Prince Metternich (1773-1859). Austrian diplomat. Architect of the Congress of Vienna Conservative: a believer in Edmund Burke’s ideology. Edmund Burke (1742-1797). Traditions Status Quo

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the age of metternich 1815 1848

The Age of Metternich1815-1848

The Congress of Vienna


Its Impact on Europe

prince metternich 1773 1859
Prince Metternich (1773-1859)
  • Austrian diplomat.
  • Architect of the Congress of Vienna
  • Conservative: a believer in Edmund Burke’s ideology.
edmund burke 1742 1797
Edmund Burke (1742-1797)
  • Traditions
  • Status Quo
  • Liberalism leads to

"To me the word freedom has not the value of a starting-point,

but of an actual goal to be striven for. The word order designates

the starting-point. It is only on order that freedom can be based.

Without order as a foundation the cry for freedom is nothing

more than the endeavour of some party or other for an end it has in view. When actually carried out in practice, that cry for freedom will inevitably express itself in tyranny. At all times and in all situations I was a man of order, yet my endeavour was always for true and not for pretended liberty.”

-Prince Metternich

  • Ideological position which upholds law and order, tradition, and authority.
  • Resistance to change.
  • Reaction to the liberal and nationalist ideas of the French Revolution.
congress of vienna
Congress of Vienna
  • Two important issues:
    • Legitimacy:
      • Re-establish monarchial rule in Europe, i.e. the Bourbons (Spain and France) and the Hapsburgs (Austria and Italy)
    • Balance of Power
      • Boundaries are redrawn: no kingdom to become too powerful/check the expansion of another.
      • Buffer zone.
who attended
Who Attended?
  • Austria: Prince Metternich
  • Prussia: King F. William III
  • Russia: Czar Alexander I
  • Britain: Lord Castlereagh
  • But to be nice…:
  • France: Talleyrand
princess lieven dorothea christorovna benckendorff 1785 1857
Princess Lieven (Dorothea Christorovna Benckendorff:1785-1857)
  • Metternich used this young, attractive woman as…
  • A spy on Lord Castlereagh and Alexander I.
  • Lived the high society life all the way to England.
  • Was a Lady in Waiting in the Russian Court.
congress of vienna 1815
Congress of Vienna (1815)
  • France was deprived of all territory conquered by Napoleon
  • The Dutch Republic was united with the Austrian Netherlands to form a single kingdom of the Netherlands under the House of Orange.
  • Norway and Sweden were joined under a single ruler
  • Switzerland was declared neutral
Russia got Finland and effective control over the new kingdom of Poland
  • Prussia was given much of Saxony and important parts of Westphalia and the Rhine Province.
  • Austria was given back most of the territory it had lost and was also given land in Germany and Italy (Lombardia and Venice)
Britain got several strategic colonial territories, and they also gained control of the seas.
  • France was restored under the rule of Louis XVIII.
  • Spain was restored under Ferdinand VII
the impact on europe
The Impact on Europe
  • Balance of power.
  • Collective security: Quadruple Alliance (Russia, Britain, Austria, Prussia)
  • Congress System led to alliances all in hopes of putting down revolution and liberal ideology, but … failed to address nationalism.
congress system meetings
Congress System (Meetings)
  • Aix-la-Chapelle 1818:
    • Removal of foreign troops from France
    • Reparations
    • Fr. admitted to Quadruple Alliance, now Quintuple Alliance.
  • Troppau Protocols 1820:
    • Reaction to rebellions in Sicily and Spain against Bourbon monarchs
Declared a combined alliance against these revolutionaries, but…
  • Britain felt differently, thus…
  • Alliance begins to split: France and Britain are the Liberal Bloc; Austria, Prussia, and Russia are the Conservative Bloc
problems within the metternich system
Problems within the Metternich System
  • Britain clearly opposed to intervention in domestic affairs.
  • Austria is a multi-ethnic state; thus suppressive tactics are utilized.
  • Russian interests in the Dardanelles and Bosporus Straights
  • Russian, British, and French support for Greek independence.
Rebellions in France against the Bourbon government (Charles X)
  • Rebellions in the Netherlands by Belgians. Britain supports Belgians
friedrich ludwig jahn
Friedrich Ludwig Jahn
  • Father of gymnastics
  • Invented the parallel bars, the rings, vaulting horse, balance beam, and horizontal bar.
  • Burschenschaftmember and Prussian patriot
forces at work

Freeing of serfs in Russia


Congress of Vienna

Forces at Work:

Your turn: add nine more examples from Chapter Five

for each category. Read the entire chapter for this. Due

next class.

Liberal Acts

Charter under Louis XVIII


Greek independence

Mazzini Young Italy Movement

Second French Republic

Belgium independence

1848 Revolutions

Br. and Fr. not joining Troppau Protocol

Conservative Acts

Congress of Vienna

Metternich’s policies


Concert of Europe

Balance of power

Carlsbad Decrees

Congress system

Troppau Protocols

Collective security

Quadruple Alliance


Police states