philly krebs and nicholas scanlan n.
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Philly Krebs and Nicholas Scanlan. Native Americans 1815-1848. Jefferson starts the policy of “Assimilation”, yet doesn’t believe that both Native Americans and the US can live peacefully in the same world Assimilation-Policy of integrating a smaller culture into the dominant one

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before 1815

Jefferson starts the policy of “Assimilation”, yet doesn’t believe that both Native Americans and the US can live peacefully in the same world

Assimilation-Policy of integrating a smaller culture into the dominant one

Tribes of the Ohio Valley unite under leadership of Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh, try to stand up to white settlers but are defeated

Creek Indians try to resist and their warriors are defeated by Andrew Jackson’s militia at Horseshoe Bend

Before 1815
the five civilized nations

Southern Native American tribes in modern day Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida

Chickasaw, Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek and Seminole

Population totaled about 60,000

Referred to as “Civilized” because they adopted many aspects of the white, U.S. society

The “Five civilized nations”
the cherokee

Cherokee are largest of the five

Of all Tribes Cherokee adopt U.S. society the most

Shift from traditional matriarchal, combined hunting and farming to a highly Agrarian Americanized society

Even adopt slavery and white racism, even pass multiple laws against blacks, about 8% owned slaves

Sequoyah invents the written Cherokee language

Cherokee have high levels of education and economic success

Cherokee create highly US modeled Constitution

The Cherokee
howe on the cherokee

“The half century following 1785 might be called the golden age of the Cherokee nation. As defined by 1819, the Nation occupied…gathering. Trade with whites flourished and permanent towns grew up. Decades of evolution in the direction of more centralized and formalized political institutions reached their climax with the adoption of a written constitution for the nation in 1827. In these and other ways, the Cherokees showed an ability to synthesize elements borrowed from Western Civilization with their native culture.” (Howe, 343).

Howe on the Cherokee
andrew jackson

Pro Indian removal

This belief helped him get elected

Southern states like Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi wanted him to move quickly

During time in office tried to get the Five Nations into new areas west of Mississippi like the Oklahoma Territory

Andrew Jackson
before jacksons inauguration

Georgia made Cherokee inside Georgia state borders under state laws

Mississippi and Alabama put Native Americans under state law who lived within state borders

Broke many treaties and against parts of the constitution

Constitution said federal government had jurisdiction over Indian affairs

Before Jacksons Inauguration
five nations make a last stand

Many of the nations tried to assimilate into modern culture

Some ceded land in hopes of retaining a portion or getting new territory

In the end most end up moving west of the Mississippi River

Five Nations Make a Last Stand

Took a diplomatic stand

Declared themselves a sovereign nation

In former treaties Indians had been called sovereign nations to be able to legally give the government land

The Cherokee were able to get the case to the Supreme Court but it went against them

seminole wars

1st, 2nd, and 3rd

2nd was the biggest and lasted from 1835-1842

Jackson spent 40-60 million dollars on the war

Seminoles used runaway slaves to help fight

At the end most of Seminoles were moved to lands beyond the Mississippi

Seminole Wars
trail of tears

15,000- 16,000 Cherokee forced by the US government, while under military supervision, to walk to present day Oklahoma and give up land East of the Mississippi River

4,000 Cherokee died

Andrew Jackson made the order but Van Buren was president when the forced march occurred

Trail of Tears
what hath god wrought

“Starting in May 1838, the majority of the tribe were rounded up by the U.S. Army and sent to detention camps to await Removal; others fled to neighboring states. Widespread bloodshed at this point was averted by the moderation and good sense of Chief Ross and General Winfield Scott.10 But incompetence, indifference, and policy disagreements among civilian authorities had frustrated the efforts of General John Ellis Wool to prepare properly for the massive evacuation. Conditions in the unsanitary detention camps and the harsh weather along the notorious “Trail of Tears” westward in the fall and winter of 1838–39 led to a tragically high death rate”(Howe 416).

What Hath God Wrought