Chapter 13. Substance Use and Abuse. Addictive Behavior. Habits that have gotten out of control, with a resulting negative effect on a person’s health. Addiction is the habitual use of a drug produced chemical changes in the user’s body . Drug Addiction (four important characteristics)
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Substance Use and Abuse
1. Developing tolerance to the substance
2. Experiencing withdrawal
3. Taking in larger amounts
4. Expressing a persistent desire to cut down
5. Spending great deal of time obtaining
6. Giving up or reducing important activities
7. Continual usage even with recognition of a problem
miscarriage, premature labor, stillbirth, and low-birth-weight baby)
71 Million Americans, including 13.7 million college-aged Americans.
2008, nearly 21% of Americans age 18 describe themselves as current smokers.
Powerful psychoactive drug
Reaches Brain via bloodstream in seconds
Most physically addictive of the psychoactive drugs.
Loss of control
Tolerance and Withdrawal
Children and teenagers make-up 90% of all new smokers in this country.
Thousands of children and adolescents (12-17) start smoking everyday.
13 for smoking
10 for spit tobacco
A parent or sibling uses tobacco
Peers use tobacco
Child comes from blue-collar family
Child comes from low-income home
Performs poorly in school
Child drops out of school
Has positive attitudes towards tobacco
Contains hundreds of damaging chemical substances, including acetone (nail polish remover), ammonia, hexamine (lighter fluid), and toluene (industrial solvent).
Unfiltered cigarettes = 5 billion particles per cubic mm
50,000 times more than polluted urban air
Condensed particles in the cigarette produce the tar (brown, sticky mass)
Carcinogens and Poisons
43 chemicals are linked to cancer (Carcinogen)
Benzo(a)pyrene (yellowish tar)
Urethane (ex: solution used in making foams)
Combine with other chemicals to cause cancer (e.g., formaldehyde)
Arsenic (e.g., insectides and weed killers)
Hydrogen cyanide (e.g., flammable liquid used in dye)
400 times greater than is considered safe in industrial workplaces
Displaces oxygen in red blood cells
Nearly 600 chemicals
Low-tar, low-nicotine, or filtered cigarettes
No such thing as a safe cigarette
Often smoke more
Reproductive health problems
Diminished physical senses
Males before 15 yrs. old are half as likely to live to 75 versus those who did not smoke
Females with similar habits reduce life expectancy by more than 10 years
Female smokers spend 17% more sick days in bed than nonsmokers
Both men and women show a greater rate of acute and chronic diseases
Spit (Smokeless) Tobacco
More than 6.6 million adults
8% of all high school students
Cigar and Pipes
Cigar smoking has increased by 148% from 1993-2006.
Cigars contain more tobacco than cigarettes.
Clover cigarettes and Bidis
Twice the tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide
Environmental Tobacco smoke (ETS)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated ETS as a class A carcinogen
Department of Health and Human Services’ National Toxicology Program - “known human carcinogen”
Surgeon General – 2006 – “there is no safe level of exposure to ETS; even brief exposure can cause serious harm”.
Smoke exhaled by smokers
Smoke from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe.
85% of smoke in a room is second hand
Twice the tar and nicotine
Three times the benzo(a)pyrene
Three times the ammonia
Smoke from a cigar can be even more dangerous
30 times more carbon monoxide
Develop cough, headaches, nasal discomfort, eye irritation, breathlessness and sinus problems
Allergies will be exacerbated
Causes 3,000 deaths due to lung cancer
Contributes to about 35,000 overall deaths each year.
20% increase in the progression of atherosclerosis.
Contributes to increased asthma attacks
More likely to develop
Bronchitis, pneumonia,& respiratory infections
More complications from asthma
Increased chance of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
Chemicals from smoking show up in breast milk
Children inhale three times more pollutants per unit of body weight than adults.
Estimated 4,600 infant deaths in the U.S.
Miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, long term impairments in growth and intellectual development
Possible higher risks of getting cancer
16% of pregnant women smoke
Lost productivity from sickness, disability, and premature death makes it close to $167 billion per year.
1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA)
43 states filed suit against tobacco companies to recoup public health care expenditures
Tobacco companies have to pay $206 billion over 25 years.
Limits or bans certain types of advertising, promotions, and lobbying.
50.2 % of all adults who have smoked have quit.
The Benefits of Quitting
Options for quitting
Smoking cessation programs
Department of Health and Human Services
Smoking cessation products
Nicotine replacement products
Patches, gums, lozenges, nasal sprays, and inhalers
Transported throughout the body via the bloodstream.
Easily moves through most biological membranes
Main site for metabolism is the Liver.
2-20% of ingested alcohol is not metabolized.
than 40 times more likely to be
involved in a crash.
crash is estimated to be 380 times higher.
April 9, 2009
Two people who were with him were also killed when, according to police, a minivan ran a red light at a Fullerton intersection and broadsided the gray Mitsubishi they were in. The driver of the minivan, Andrew Thomas Gallo, 22, of Riverside, was arrested on suspicion of drunken driving, hit and run and manslaughter.
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White American men (excessive drinking often begins in the teens or twenties)
“Other men” (remain controlled drinkers until later in life)
Women (alcoholism often occurs
later in life)
African Americans (alcohol abuse
usually found in African Americans)
Latinos (drinking patterns vary)
Asian Americans (low rate of alcohol abuse)
American Indians and Alaska Natives (excessive drinking varies from tribe to tribe)