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Activity Scheduling and Control. Activity Scheduling & Control. • Input: MRP Manufacturing Orders (MO’s) Subject to Capacity Constraints, Not Purchase Orders (PO’s) • Plans Hit the Real World (the Shop Floor). Activity Scheduling & Control. • Planning - Ensure Resources Available

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activity scheduling control
Activity Scheduling & Control

• Input: MRP Manufacturing Orders (MO’s) Subject to Capacity Constraints, Not Purchase Orders (PO’s)

• Plans Hit the Real World (the Shop Floor)

activity scheduling control3
Activity Scheduling & Control

• Planning

- Ensure Resources Available

- Schedule Order Start & Completion Dates

• Implementation

- Gather Information Needed to Make Item

- Dispatch (Release) Orders to Floor

• Control (Feedback)

- Rank Orders in Priority Sequence

- Track Actual Performance vs. Plans

- Monitor WIP, Queues, Lead Time, Etc.

- Report Out – Input/Output Reports (p. 175)

data requirements planning
Data Requirements - Planning

• Item Master File:

Part Numbers, Description, Lead Time, On Hand, On Order, Quantity Assigned to Work Center, Lot Sizes

• Product Structure or Bill of Materials File

• Routing File:

Series of Operations Along with Resources Needed, Set Up, Run Times, Lead Times

•Work Center Master File

Work Center Number, Capacity, Shifts, Machine and Labor Hours Available, Efficiency, Utilization, Queue Time, Alternate Centers

data requirements control
Data Requirements - Control

• Shop Order Master File (Each Order):

Shop Order Number, Order Quantity, Quantity Completed, Quantity Scrapped, Material Issued, Due Dates, Priority, Balance Due, Costs

• Shop Order Detail File (Each Operation):

Operation Number, Setup Hours, Run Hours, Quantity Completed, Quantity Scrapped, Due Date or Lead Time Remaining

types of manufacturing service systems
Types of Manufacturing/Service Systems

• Intermittent (Job Shops)

- Traditional

- Work Cells

• Flow (Assembly Lines)

• Projects (SOM 466)

job shops
Job Shops

• Different Items Can be Produced at the Same Job Center – Requires Worker and Machine Flexibility

• Design and Fabrication of Item Determines Job Shop Routing

• Capacity Required at Each Work Center Depends on Mix of Products. Hard to Predict

• Queues (Inventory) Results When Schedule Assigns too Many Jobs to Work Center – Throughput Times Generally Long

work cells
Work Cells

• Intermediate to Job Shops & Assembly Lines

• Group of Machines to Make Set of Parts

• Minimizes Distances, Related Handling Costs

• Minimizes Inventories

scheduling in job shops and work cells
Scheduling in Job Shops and Work Cells

• Forward Scheduling – Left to Right – Earliest Dates

• Backwards Scheduling – Right to Left – Latest Dates

• Infinite Loading – No Capacity Limits

• Finite Loading – Capacity Limits

• Operations Overlapping

• Operations Splitting

scheduling in job shops and work cells shop floor control
Scheduling in Job Shops and Work Cells: Shop Floor Control

JobRouting

Red A(1), B (1), C (1)

Green C (1), A (2)

Purple B (1), A (1)

R

G

G

P

Gantt

Chart

P

R

G

R

bottlenecks in job shops and work cells
Bottlenecks in Job Shops and Work Cells

• Establish Inventory Buffer Before Bottleneck

• Control Rate of Material Feed at Gateway Operation

• Try to Increase Capacity of Bottleneck

• Adjust Loads – Alternate Work Centers or Subcontract

• Last Resort – Change Schedule

• Use Goldratt’s “Theory of Constraints” (pp. 170-172)

sequencing rules in job shops and work cells
Sequencing Rules in Job Shops and Work Cells

• First – Come, First – Served (FCFS)

• Earliest Due Date (EDD)

• Earliest Operation Due Date (ODD)

• Shortest Process Time (SPT)

• Critical Ratio (CR) or Slack Rule

CR = (Due Date – Present Date) / Lead Time Remaining

Lowest CR Has Priority. CR < 1: Behind Schedule

flow manufacturing assembly lines
Flow ManufacturingAssembly Lines

• Allows Mass Production

• Repetitive Production of Standardized Products

• Standard Flow Minimizes Inventories

• Routings are Fixed. Work Centers Depend on Routing.

• Capacity Fixed by the Assembly Line

scheduling assembly lines assembly line balance
Scheduling Assembly Lines:Assembly Line Balance

Definitions:

  • Task or Operation – Smallest Definable Unit of Work (Circle)
  • Station – Work Area (Square)
  • Cycle Time – Time Allowed to Do a Cycle of Work 1/(Production Rate)
example problem 3 6
Example: Problem 3.6

TaskFollowsTime (Sec.)

A --- 25

B A 25

C A 20

D A 10

E B,C,D 15

F B,C,D 20

G E,F 10

Cycle Time = 35 Seconds

assembly line balance
Assembly Line Balance
  • Theoretical Minimum Stations = Sum of Task Times / Cycle Time = 125 / 35 ≈ 4
  • Idle Time = (Stations X Cycle Time) - Sum of Task Times = (4 X 35) – 125 = 15
assembly line balance assign tasks to stations22
Assembly Line Balance:Assign Tasks to Stations

A

D

B

C

E

F

G

Idle: 0 + 10 + 0 + 5 = 15

assembly line balance nightmare
Assembly Line Balance Nightmare
  • Task Time(s)  Cycle Time
  • Solutions:

- Divide Task

- Decrease Task time

- Increase Cycle Time

- Parallel Stations