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Training Principles & Methods. To bring about long term or chronic training effects the individual must adhere to certain training principles and methods. Without these principles and methods training effects will be less than optimal.

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training principles methods
Training Principles & Methods
  • To bring about long term or chronic training effects the individual must adhere to certain training principles and methods.
  • Without these principles and methods training effects will be less than optimal.
  • Training therefore needs to be planned and based on the correct principles and methods.
  • The stress placed on the body from training has a catabolic or destructive effect and recovery time is needed to allow the body to respond / improve.
training principles
Training Principles
  • Remember : FIDSOP
  • Frequency
  • Intensity
  • Duration
  • Specificity
  • Overload (progressive)
  • Periodisation
training principles1
Training Principles
  • Frequency :
  • The no. of training days per week.
  • Aerobic - 3\7 Anaerobic - 3\5
  • (An important factor in any program is rest. Therefore a program that does not include rest days is likely to create an overtraining situation. Sufficient rest days in between training sessions should always be included.)
  • Intensity :
  • How hard the sessions is. Measured by heart rate.
  • Training threshold, target heart rate, threshold intensity, or aerobic thresholdrefer to : The minimum heart rate at which the training effect begins.
  • Aerobic - 70 % of max heart rate.
  • Anaerobic – 85 – 90 % of max heart rate.
  • Training zone : Refers to the intensity range where training effects are expected.
  • Aerobic - 70 - 85% of max heart rate (MHR). Recovery : < 70%
  • Anaerobic –Lactic acid 85 – 95% of max heart rate. ATP-CP – 95-100 % Recovery : < 70%
  • The upper limit of the aerobic training zone is known as the anaerobic threshold. Generally this occurs at 85 % of MHR but can be lower for untrained individuals or higher for trained athletes.

For a 20 year old subject the aerobic training zone is between 140 & 180 bpm. 180 bpm also represents his anaerobic threshold. As the subject ages, all of these figures decrease. (See above)

training principles cont
Training Principles cont..
  • Duration:
  • The minimum number of weeks a program should run or the length of the training session to see appreciable gains.
  • Minimum of 6 weeks for both aerobic and anaerobic training.
  • Aerobic – 12-16 weeks and between 70-85% of MHR for 20- 30 minutes.
  • Anaerobic - 8-10 weeks. No specific time frame indicated for sessions.
  • Specificity:
  • Training should be specific to the intended performance. ie Training should simulate as much as possible the actual performance.
  • Overload (progressive):
  • Athlete should aim to train a little harder at regular intervals to force the body to adapt to the unaccustomed stress. The changes should be moderate and progressive with only one parameter changed at a time. If the overload is excessive then overtraining and injury may result. Under-load will result in no improvement and possible de-training
  • The ideal time to overload is at the peak of the overcompensation effect.
training principles cont1
Training Principles cont..
  • Diminishing returns :Beginners experience substantial gains whereas the fitter athlete experiences smaller and smaller gains performance. As the athlete approaches his genetic potential training gains deminish.
  • Detraining / Reversability: Gains made from training will be lost within 4-8 weeks. Minimal losses can be expected in the first 1-2 weeks out of training. When training effects are lost the same amount of training will be required to regain the losses.
  • Periodisation:Trainingis broken down into blocks of intense training followed by a week of light training followed by overload. (See training management section)
  • Other less important principles include:
  • Generalisation before specialisation.
  • Right practice makes perfect.
  • Variety adds spice.
  • Maintenance : Training effects can be maintained with 2 sessions / week at optimal intensity.