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Elevator Training 2003

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  1. Elevator Training 2003 Content: • Elevator terminology and components • Types of elevators • Safety features • Types of Emergencies • Rescue methods

  2. Elevator Training 2003 Please note: *Remember, all elevators are not built the same. *Elevators installed at different time periods conform to different requirements or codes. *Elevator features and operation may vary from one elevator to another. *Get to know the elevators in the buildings that you respond to during pre-fire inspections.

  3. Elevator Training 2003 Counterweight A tracked weight that is suspended from cables and moves within its own set of guide rails along the hoistway walls. This counterweight will be equal to the dead weight of the car plus about 40% of the rated load.

  4. Elevator Training 2003 Counter weight

  5. Elevator Training 2003 Counter weight

  6. Elevator Training 2003 Counter weight

  7. Elevator Training 2003 Hoistway The shaft that encompasses the elevator car. Generally serving all floors of the building.

  8. Elevator Training 2003 Hoistway In high-rise buildings hoistways may be banked. With specific hoistways serving only the lower floors and others serving only middle or upper floors while traveling in a blind hoistway until reaching the floors that it serves. A blind hoistway has no doors on the floors that it does not serve.

  9. Elevator Training 2003

  10. Elevator Training 2003

  11. Elevator Training 2003

  12. Elevator Training 2003 Elevator car A heavy steel frame surrounding a cage of metal and wood panels. The top of the car frame is called the “crosshead”. Cabled elevators are usually suspended from the crosshead. The bottom of the frame is usually referred to as the “safety plank”.

  13. Elevator Training 2003 Cross head

  14. Elevator Training 2003 Safety plank

  15. Elevator Training 2003 Elevator car The elevator car door travels through the hoistway with the car. A toe guard is present at the bottom of some cars. This guard protects the passengers from being exposed to the open hoistway under the car if the doors are opened when it is not at the landing. The guard is between 21” and 48” long.

  16. Elevator Training 2003 Toe guard

  17. Elevator Training 2003 Elevator door These doors can sometimes opened on the inside by hand, except where anti-egress devices are installed. This will also break the electrical interlock which will cut the power to the car.

  18. Elevator Training 2003 Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

  19. Elevator Training 2003 Anti-egress lock

  20. Elevator Training 2003 Hoistway doors Horizontal operating hoistway doors are generally hung from the top on rollers that run in a track, with the bottom of the door running in a slot.

  21. Elevator Training 2003 Interlock opening mechanism

  22. Elevator Training 2003 Hoistway doors Forcing these doors at the middle or at the bottom will cause damage to the doors and their mounting hardware. The doors can also be knocked out of their track and fall into the hoistway.

  23. Elevator Training 2003 Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

  24. Elevator Training 2003 Hoistway door interlock The hoistway door locking mechanism provides a means to mechanically lock each hoistway door. They are also interconnected electrically to prevent operation of the elevator if any of the elevator’s hoistway doors are open.

  25. Elevator Training 2003 Hoistway door interlock Hoistway door interlock

  26. Elevator Training 2003 Interlock for freight elevator

  27. Elevator Training 2003 Hoistway emergency door keys Carried on trucks and the squad, permit the unlocking of the hoistway door interlock.

  28. Elevator Training 2003

  29. Elevator Training 2003 Escutcheon tube The keyhole on the upper portion of a hoistway door that accepts a hoistway emergency door key and permits unlocking of the hoistway door locking mechanism. These keyholes are usually located at the bottom and top floors, but may also be on other selected floors or all floors. You may find a lock covering these keyholes on some new elevator installations. Locate these keys during pre-fires.

  30. Elevator Training 2003 Escutcheon tube

  31. Elevator Training 2003

  32. Elevator Training 2003 Escutcheon tube

  33. Elevator Training 2003 Car top operating station Provided on some cars for operating the car from the car top. To be used by the elevator technician when servicing the car. This station should only be operated under the direct supervision of the elevator technician.

  34. Elevator Training 2003 Operating station

  35. Elevator Training 2003 Photo-electric and infrared sensors A sensor between the hoistway and car doors that detects objects in their path and prevents the doors from closing. Photo-electric eyes were problematic and are being phased out.

  36. Elevator Training 2003 Infra-red sensor

  37. Elevator Training 2003 Roller guides A set of three wheels that roll against the guide rails. Usually mounted to the safety plank and crosshead. They keep the car in contact with the guide rails and prevent sway.

  38. Elevator Training 2003 Roller guides on Cross head

  39. Elevator Training 2003 Roller guides on Safety plank

  40. Elevator Training 2003 Safeties Emergency braking mechanism that stops the car by wedging into the guide rails when over speeding has occurred. It is activated by the speed governor sensing over speeding of the elevator car.

  41. Elevator Training 2003 Safeties

  42. Elevator Training 2003 Safeties Governor rope

  43. Elevator Training 2003 Hoisting cables (or ropes) Used on traction type elevators, usually attached to the crosshead and extending up into the machine room looping over the sheave on the motor and then down to the counter weights. Hoisting cable are generally 3 to 6 in number. They are steel with a hemp core to keep them pliable and lubricated.

  44. Elevator Training 2003 Hoisting cables (or ropes) These cables are usually 1/2”or 5/8” in diameter. The 1/2”cables have a breaking strength of 14,500lbs and the 5/8” 23,000lbs each. However, at 900 degrees the wire steel rope contains only about 13% of its original tensile strength.

  45. Elevator Training 2003 Nickel Babbitt

  46. Elevator Training 2003 Hoisting cables Wedge clamp

  47. Elevator Training 2003

  48. Elevator Training 2003 Counter weight

  49. Elevator Training 2003 Sheave

  50. Elevator Training 2003 Guide rails Tracks in the form of a “T” that run the length of the hoistway, that guide the elevator car. Usually mounted to the sides of the hoistway, at the middle of the elevator car.