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9 th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04 Bratislava , May 6-7, 200 4. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO URBAN TRANSPORT POLICY Prof. Dr. Sanja Steiner, Prof. Dr. Mario Anzek University of Zagreb Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering.

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9th International Scientific Conference

MOBILITA ‘04

Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

CONCEPTUAL APPROACH TO URBAN TRANSPORT POLICY

Prof. Dr. Sanja Steiner, Prof. Dr. Mario Anzek

University of Zagreb

Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004
  • TRANSITION COUNTRIES TRANSPORT POLICIES VERSUS EU-ENLARGEMENT
  • Key problems in strategy planning – transition sindrom
  • European transport policy overview – useful lessons and given framework
  • National transport strategy goals – “de iure” and “de facto”
  • Development guidelines for future
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Strategical transport planning in transition countries is based on the main political goal of joining the European Union.

The legal framework and best practices of EU transport sector are the backbone for their transport strategy conceptions.

In transport development projection assessment of social and economical benefits as well as negative impacts of transport industry on environment and external transport costs is necessary.

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

The transport policy in Croatia:

  • shows inconsistency and fragmentation by transport branches
  • has no clear development concepts at the system level
  • has no comprehensive goals and consideration of real conditions
  • is exclusively based on financial sources of public sector (government budget).
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

There is a lack of inter-departmental co-operation and consequentlly a lack of solving critical issues of:

  • restructuring the unprofitable state companies in the transport sector
  • irrational management of transport infrastructure
  • absence of equal market conditions for all transport branches
  • failure to apply of traffic management principles by demand induction
  • failure to assess the external transport costs.
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

The legal problem refers to:

  • non-compliant regulations in the process of economic transition (transition to the free market)
  • lack of harmonisation with the EU regulations.
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

In the attempts to separate the regulatory and operational functions, the newly founded state owned companies (Croatia Control, Croatian Roads, Croatian Railways etc.) have been left without the commercial management, and at the same time the regulatory domain of the authorities within the respective ministry has been reduced.

In the analysis of infrastructure, the main characteristics are the overcapacity compared to the traffic demand and qualitativeinsufficiency expressed in the service level and exploitation characteristics.

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

EU Common Transport Policyobjectives:

  • forming of a Trans-European network
  • fair pricing in transport
  • environmental protection
  • transport safety
  • social cohesion
  • stronger internal market and
  • stronger external dimension of a single market.
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

In spite of declared readiness by EU members, the implementation of CTM guidelines regarding investment policy at national levels has not been realised (excluding the 14 Essen TEN projects), so that the investment structure is 65% in roads, 25% in railways and 10% in other branches (1999).[1]

About 10% of the EU road network suffers from daily congestion, about 20% or railway network are described as bottlenecks, 16 main international airports report delays of more than 15 minutes on 30% of flights and consequently extra fuel consumption of 6% of the total annual consumption.

[1] Source: EXTRA/THEMATIC PAPER 2 – Sustainable mobility-economic aspects, 2001.

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

For transition countries, adopting the EU solution is not just a question of political will but also of objective possibilities regarding legal, financial and human resources.

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Croatian Development Strategy

  • Governmental project “Croatia in 21st Century” started in July 2000;
  • Project task TRANSPORT has been leaded by academician Bozicevic and fourty scientists and experts;
  • Scientific Council for Transport of CASA has accepted Transport Strategy Draft;
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Original document is available on web address:

www.croatia21.hr

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Conceptually, the document has been structured in four key aspects:

  • transport policy
  • transport infrustructure
  • management
  • institutional and legal framework.
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Strategic goals of transport development in Croatia, which are derived from EU-CTP, should be:

  • full integration into the Trans-European transport network
  • fair charging in transport
  • better environmental protection
  • improvement of transport safety
  • social cohesion
  • stronger transport market.
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

The expression “should be” is stated because new Transport Strategy Drafthas not been accepted yet.

In meantime Croatian Government has undertook action of progressive new motorways construction, which is completely in contradiction with proposed strategic priorities.

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

The main riskscan be recognized in the following problems:

  • Regulator structure – administration staff
  • Legal issues – non-compliance regulations
  • Management problems – free market, commercialisation/privatisation of the transport infrastructure and operational
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Basic preconditions for a more progressive development approach for the countries in transition:

  • clearly defined national strategies of transport development i.e. transport policies;
  • strict division of functions of regulators and providers;
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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004
  • adoption of European transport regulations and technical standards;
  • selection of optimal form of transport infrastructure managing predominantly owned by state - commercialisation and privatisation;
  • institutional restructuring of providers on the principles of free market.
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Objectives

  • Emphasised development of public transit
  • Reduction in the usage of road motor vehicles
  • Efficient regulation of traffic flows by intelligent systems
  • Protection of health and environment
  • Substantially greater traffic safety
  • Integration of urban, regional and state traffic network
  • Subsidising of public transit
  • Fair pricing
  • Operational restrictions for road motor traffic
  • Preventing unnecessary traffic
  • Inducing the demand for environmentally friendly transportation modes (public and non-motorised traffic)

Guidelines

9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

The basics of urban traffic development strategy

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Objectives

  • Establishment of Urban Traffic Authority (within Transport Ministry)
  • Separation of the regulatory and operational functions at the level of the local authorities
  • Restructuring of the urban transport companies and insuring of legal framework for privatisation
  • Involving private sector into the public transport development
  • Delegating umbrella regulatory functions at the state level
  • Autonomy of local (urban) traffic authorities in realising development programs – uniting the functions of planning, control and financing
  • Commercialisation/privatisation of municipal companies – service providers
  • Establishing of transportation-tariff associations

Guidelines

9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Institutional framework

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Objectives

  • Accepting legal and sub-legal regulations regarding urban traffic
  • Harmonisation of technical and technological standards with EU references
  • Revision and adjustment of the existing acts in the field of municipal economy and road traffic
  • Implementation of EU initiatives and the best practices in planning the tax policy and fair pricing
  • Establishment of legal framework for the competitiveness of the services provider on the free market and preventing monopolies

Guidelines

9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Legal framework

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Objectives

  • Construction of by-passes
  • Preparing of development strategy for the urban and suburban public passenger traffic, and in major cities of rail traffic (light urban rails, tramway)
  • Preparing of the development strategy for pedestrian and cycling traffic (Walk-, Cycle- Strategy)
  • Development of urban infrastructure based on the comprehensive traffic and economic studies
  • Emphasised development of infrastructure of the public and non-motorised traffic
  • Diverting transit flows outside the urban areas using infrastructure measures
  • Adapting of traffic infrastructure to special groups of users (disabled persons)

Guidelines

9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Infrastructure

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Objectives

  • More profitable service providers in public urban traffic
  • Competitiveness of operators on the free market
  • Restructuring of companies owned by the city
  • Insurance of the conditions for commercial management of urban traffic infrastructure
  • Phased privatisation of transportation services
  • Fair charging

Guidelines

9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

Management

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9th International Scientific Conference MOBILITA ‘04Bratislava, May 6-7, 2004

CONCLUSION

According to the new Transport Strategy Draft, development guidelines of the Croatian transport system have been articulated through key aspects of policy – institutional and legal issues, infrastructure and management issues.

Main problems can be recognized in legal insufficiency, administration management as well as in commercial management in public sector.

Strategic guidelines are directed toward full adopting of international, particular EU standards, strict separation of regulatory and operational functions as well as governmental measures for free market strengthening in transport sector, through commercialisation and privatisation of state-owned companies.