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Lincoln, Secession and War. Chapter 6, Section 4. The Election of 1860. At the onset of the election of 1860, people were still reeling over John Brown’s raid and execution and the ever-present question about what would happen with slavery .

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lincoln secession and war
Lincoln, Secession and War

Chapter 6, Section 4

the election of 1860
The Election of 1860
  • At the onset of the election of 1860, people were still reeling over John Brown’s raid and execution and the ever-present question about what would happen with slavery.
  • The issue of government control rose up in conjunction with the Dred Scott decision and the Fugitive Slave Act.
    • This issue allowed Jefferson Davis to pass through Congress resolutions that restrictingfederal control over slavery in the territories.
    • Congress could also not interfere with slavery in territories where it already existed.
the election of 18601
The Election of 1860
  • At the Democratic Convention in Charleston, North Carolina, the Democratic Party split over the issue of slavery.
    • Northerners supported Stephen Douglas, while Southerners walked out of the convention and nominated John C. Breckenridge. The party was thus split.
  • The Whigs joined with the Know-Nothings and created the Constitutional Union Party. Their goal was to mend regional differences by choosing John Bell, a moderate from Tennessee.
The Republicans chose Abraham Lincoln, a moderate candidate at their convention held in Illinois.
    • The Republican Party’s platform:
      • End slavery in the territories.
      • Each state can control its own decisions.
      • No interference in states where slavery already existed.
  • The election was won handily by Abraham Lincoln, with 40% of the popular vote. He did not win any of the southern states; instead, these states supported John C. Breckenridge.
    • This election demonstrated that the United States was no longer united.
the union collapses
The Union Collapses
  • After Lincoln had been elected, southern states called a convention to withdraw from the Union. South Carolinawas the first state to secede.
    • Not all states would support secession, though. Some southern states felt loyalty to the Constitution.
  • In 1861, the sevenseceded states would form the Confederate States of America.
    • These states would write their own Constitution which supported their pro-slavery beliefs.
    • They attracted support of Britain and France by prohibiting the import of new slaves from other countries.
    • They chose Jefferson Davis as their president.
the union collapses1
The Union Collapses
  • In a last-ditch effort to save the Union, Kentucky senator John Crittenden came up with a final compromise. It would become known as the Crittenden Compromise.
    • Slavery would be allowed in territories south of the Missouri Compromise line.
    • Federal funds would be used to reimburse slaveowners for unreturned slaves.
      • This compromise was voted down.
the civil war begins
The Civil War Begins
  • Lincoln’s main goal as president was to preservethe Union.
    • When the South seceded, they seized the forts within their borders. One of these was Fort Sumter. Lincoln had to decide whether or not to try and hold on to Fort Sumter- including keeping the fort supplied, or give it up. He notified SC that he was sending food only.
  • The Confederacy attacked Fort Sumter and Union troops were forced to surrender.
    • This attack left Northerners shocked.
  • Both sides rallied troops and support for the war that both sides believed would last a few days or months.
causes of the civil war
Causes of the Civil War
  • Long-term:

1) Economic and cultural differences

2) Debate over slavery in the territories

3) Compromises did not work

4) Legislation increasing sectional tension (i.e. Fugitive Slave Act, Dred Scott and increased tariffs)

5) Growing antislavery movement

6) Uncle Tom’s Cabin

causes of the civil war1
Causes of the Civil War
  • Short-term:

1) Kansas-Nebraska Act splits the political parties

2) Breakdown of the party system (i.e. all of the sub-parties Know-Northings; Constitutional Party)

3) Lincoln is elected president

4) South Carolina secedes from the Union