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Chemical Kinetics

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  1. Chemical Kinetics The Study of Reaction Rates

  2. What is a Rate? • The rate of a process in the amount of progress that has been made, divided by the time required to achieve that progress. • Speed = • Example: You travel 102 miles in 2.00 hours • Average Speed = = 51.0

  3. The Rate of a Chemical Reaction • In a chemical reaction, we can define “progress” as the consumption of a reactant or the formation of a product. • To measure this progress, we measure how much a reactant concentration decreases in a given period of time, or how much a product concentration increases in a given period of time.

  4. The Rate of a Chemical Reaction • But not everything in a chemical reaction is changing at the same rate. • 2A(g) + 3B(g)  C(g) + 4D(g) • Suppose the concentration of substance A is decreasing at the rate of 0.40 mol/ L s. What is happening to the other concentrations?

  5. The Rate of a Chemical Reaction • 2A(g) + 3B(g)  C(g) + 4D(g) • = -0.40 • = -0.60 • = 0.20 • = 0.80

  6. Standardizing the Rate of a Chemical Reaction • 2A(g) + 3B(g)  C(g) + 4D(g) • Rate = - = - = = • All of the above expressions give the same result. • - ) = 0.20 • - (-0.60 ) = 0.20

  7. Standardizing the Rate of a Chemical Reaction • 2A(g) + 3B(g)  C(g) + 4D(g) • Rate = - = - = = • Rate = 0.20 • Rate = (0.80 ) = 0.20

  8. Reaction Rate from Concentration Measurements