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Chemical Kinetics. Reaction rate - the change in concentration of reactant or product per unit time. Factors Affecting Rates. Temperature Concentration of reactants Particle size Presence of a catalyst. Rates.

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## Chemical Kinetics

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**Chemical Kinetics**• Reaction rate - the change in concentration of reactant or product per unit time.**Factors Affecting Rates**• Temperature • Concentration of reactants • Particle size • Presence of a catalyst**Rates**• Average rates - the difference in concentration over a set amount of time. Table 12.2 • Instantaneous rates - calculated from the slope of the line tangent to the curve at a certain point.**Reaction rates**• Rates are not constant. • Rates vary with time because concentrations vary with time.**Rate Laws**• Rate = k[A]n[B]m[C]p • k = rate constant • n,m,p = order ; must be determined by experiment.**Differential rate law**• Expresses how a rate depends on concentration. • Often this is just called the rate law.**Integrated rate law**• Expresses how the concentration depends on time.**Reaction Mechanism**• The series of elementary steps by which a reaction occurs. • An elementary step is a step whose rate law can be determined from its molecularity.**Molecularity**• The number of species that must collide to produce the reaction in that step. • Unimolecular involves one molecule. • Bimolecular and termolecular involve 2 and 3 species respectively**Intermediate**• A species that is neither a reactant or a product. This species is produced and consumed in the reaction.**Rate Determining Step**• This is the slowest step of the mechanism. The reaction can only proceed as fast as this rate determining step will allow.**Requirements of Mechanisms**• The sum of the elementary steps must give the overall balanced equation. • The mechanism must agree with the experimentally determined rate law. The rate determining step.**Collision model for kinetics**• Reactant molecules must collide in order to react. • Concentration • Particle size • Temperature • Molecular orientation**Requirements for reaction**• The collision energy must equal or exceed the activation energy. • The orientation of the reactants must allow the formation of new bonds.

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