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CSE494/598Principles of Information Engineering Spring 2003 Forouzan Golshani
Lesson Objectives: 1. - Define Data, Information, and Knowledge. 2. - Recognize the importance of Information Engineering. 3. - Describe why many internet-based companies have failed. 4. - Explain the classes of information availability. Reading Material: Read several paragraphs from John Barlow’s work entitled “The Economy of Ideas”. It can be found at: http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/2.03/economy.ideas_pr.html Read the paragraphs in the middle starting with the section titled “A taxonomy of information” through the section titled “Information as its own reward”.
Course topics • Introduction • Information Life Cycle • Information Transport • Configuration Management • Information Security • Business Formation • Legacy Systems • Intellectual Property • Information Policies • Information Implications in the New Economy • Information Science
A New Perspective • In computer science, we do our work with the question “HOW” in mind • The question in this course should be “WHY?” • In physics, after so many years, we generally know if we are doing something right or wrong • In CS/IT we do not!
Class Objectives • To develop a good understanding of the role of information in an information-centered enterprise • To develop full understanding of the spectrum of activities that an enterprise does with its information • Study Information Engineering as an information-centered area.
Strategic Use of Information Resources • Dell Computer Case • Stopped selling PCs through retailers 1994 • Direct Business Model, enabled by a well designed information system • No middleman surcharges • IS enables the assembly of the most current computers satisfying the exact wishes of the buyer without the expense of large inventories • Saving are passed to the customer • Concentrate on producing only the current products – important in “low margin” products • Dell has maintained strategic leadership
Value of Information • The airline industry 1993-4 • American, United, Delta, … lost money • AMR and Southwest made money! • Q: What contributed more to GE‘s profits?A: • Appliances? • Technical products and services? • Its pension plan/financial
Value of Information Subject: Lost pet fees cost Toronto $700,000 ... the city lost out on nearly $700,000 in pet fees last year because nearly half of Toronto's dog and cat owners were never billed. The staffer who knew how to run the computerized billing system was laid off. [...] Only one city employee ever understood the system well enough to debug it when problems arose. That person was lost last year [due to downsizing] leaving no one to get things going again when the system ran into trouble and collapsed. [Source: *Toronto Globe and Mail*, 15 Feb 2001]
Preservation Re - engineering Retrieval Storage Presentation Analysis/mining/ Packaging/ processing Visualization Coding/ Transport Compression Discard Acquisition Information Science Information Science Information related activities Preservation Re - engineering Retrieval Storage Presentation Analysis/mining/ Packaging/ processing Visualization Coding/ Transport Compression Discard Acquisition Information Science Information Science
Data, Information and Knowledge • Data:Atomic values, usually applicable to individual objects of the domain of discourse • Information:Interpretation, generalization or validation of factual data, usually applicable to groups or subsets of the domain of interest • Knowledge Verified, tested and validated information applicable to diverse situations.
Computers in Business • Introduced in to business in late 1950s • Accounting tasks, payroll, accounts receivable/payable • Manufacturing domain in 1960s • Inventory, Production control, customer orders, purchasing • By 1970s, many tasks were automated • Costs were considered R&D • No serious accountability
Computers in Business, cont’d • High costs, as well as strategic importance of computer systems, became apparent in the 1980s • Information Resource Management • Strategic computing • Today, most firms want their own specialized business information system • Migration • Integration
Evolution of Information Systems • Primary Role of IT: • 1960s: Efficiency. Automate existing paper based processes • Justification: ROI • 1970s: Effectiveness. Increase individual and group effectiveness • Justification: Increasing productivity and better decision quality • 1980-90s: Strategic. Industry/organization transformation • Justification: Competitive position • 2000s: Value creation. Collaborative partnerships • Justification: Adding value
Evolution of Information Systems • Target of systems: • 1960s: Organizations • 1970s: Individual, manager, group • 1980-90s: Business process • 2000s: Customer, supplier, competitor • Information Model: • 1960s: Application specific • 1970s: Data-driven • 1980-90s: Business-driven • 2000s: Knowledge driven
Evolution of Information Systems • Dominant technology • 1960s: Mainframe. Centralized intelligence • 1970s: Minicomputer. Decentralized intelligence • 1980-90s: Microcomputer, Client server. Distributed intelligence • 2000s: Internet. Ubiquitous intelligence
Type of Content Terabytes/Year Upper estimate Lower estimate Paper Books 8 1 2 Newspapers 25 2 -2 Periodicals 12 1 2 Office documents 195 19 2 Subtotal: 240 23 2 Film Photographs 410,000 41,000 5 Cinema 16 16 3 X-Rays 17,200 17,200 2 Subtotal: 427,216 58,216 4 Optical medium Music CDs 58 6 3 Data CDs 3 3 2 DVDs 22 22 100 Subtotal: 83 31 70 Magnetic Medium Camcorder Tape 300,000 300,000 5 PC Disk Drives 766,000 7,660 100 Departmental Servers 460,000 161,000 100 Enterprise Servers 167,000 108,550 100 Subtotal: 1,693,000 577,210 55 TOTAL: 2,120,539 635,480 50 A Sea of Information … Growth rate %
Yearly media use by US households in hours per year, with estimated megabyte equivalent. Item 1992 Hours 2000 Hours 2000 MB % Change TV 1510 1571 3,142,000 4 Radio 1150 1056 57,800 -8 Recorded Music 233 269 13,450 15 Newspaper 172 154 11 -10 Books 100 96 7 -4 Magazines 85 80 6 -6 Home video 42 55 110,000 30 Video games 19 43 21,500 126 Internet 2 43 9 2,050 Total: 3,324 3,380 3,344,783 1.7 Trends in Media Use
Yearly production of published information Item Titles Terabytes Books 968,735 8 Newspapers 22,643 25 Journals 40,000 2 Magazines 80,000 10 Newsletters 40,000 0.2 Office Documents 7,500,000,000 195 Cinema 4,000 16 Music CDs 90,000 6 Data CDs 1,000 3 DVD-video 5,000 22 Total: 285 How much information…
A Manufacturing Scenario… • One computer contains a specification that describes, with text and numbers, a needed part and perhaps a flow chart graphic related to the part, • another computer contains an engineering drawing or a CAD file that was derived from the specification for the part, • yet another computer contains an inspection photo of that part, taken while the part is being materialized, • another data base contains a history of test readouts regarding that part, • yet another file type contains a video of that part in normal operation and another showing abnormal operation • the project schedule milestone, and personnel assigned to each task is in another data base, • the financial data regarding the revenue, costs, investments, development projects, etc. for that part is in yet another data base, • Minutes from design review, project review, lessons learned and other meetings are filed in various other data bases, perhaps in desk workstations.
Information Flow in Manufacturing Environments (ideal)
Multimedia Technologies and MIMS Minimally Identified Types of Media Objects Payroll, purchasing Administrative Text/Number Departments Market Analysis Image/Graphic Market Analysis & Prediction Data Text R&D Dept. Planning Info. Product Strategy Image/Graph/ Production Planning Text/Number Functional Specification Product Design Product Design Manufacturing Information System 3-D Graphic Dept. Product Physics / /Number/Text Engineering Drawing Process Scheduling Process Planning Function Design / Text Dept. Engineering Drawing Image/3-D Graphic Assembly and Manufacturing Info. Function Design / 3-D Animation Manufacturing Dept. Fabrication Drawing (Movie) Tool/Facilities Planning System Control Image Data Control System Text NC Part Programming Sensory data Number Device Control Info. Process Control - Various media types and information are exchanged between departments and members. - Traditional MIS cannot handle all of the requirements.
Information Types Semantics - human understandable information Discourse Document Film Report Theory Animation Algebra/calculus Paragraph Argument Video segment Drawing Aggregates Sentence Concepts Still image Records Functions/predicates Polygons Phonemes/words Words Block Lines Fields Strings Samples Characters Pixels Numbers Symbols Signals/bits
Information Management Systems Design • Successful implementations require: • Analysis of information flow in various organizations across the entire enterprise. • Abstraction and classification of information from the enterprise level to the lowest level. • Identification of types of information. • Specification of interfaces for information exchange (so that applications can be implemented independently). • Various types of information and their flow must be identified and analyzed to support decision making and concurrent engineering. • Information sharing and collaboration are essential.
Information Systems Planning What needs to be done Abstraction Strategic How it should Be done Tactical Implementing Operational Classification
Steps in Developing Information Systems • Mission statement • Information system objectives • Primary information processes • Identify customers • Determine customer needs • Develop product/services features • Establish quality goals, and develop quality process • Design and implement • Test capabilities
Information Availability • Crucial to business success • Depending on potential consequences of loss, great resources may be allocated to availability assurance • Methods vary for on-line systems and batch system (yes…they are still very common!)
Availability of typical IS classes System type Unavailability Availability Class (Min/year) Unmanaged 52,560 90% 1 Managed 5,256 99% 2 Well-managed 525 99.9% 3 Fault tolerant 53 99.99% 4 High availability 5 99.999% 5 Very high Availability .5 99.9999% 6 Ultra availability .05 99.99999% 7
Availability assurance: Batch systems Sunday Master Monday Master Tuesday Master Wednesday Master Monday Night Batch Run Tuesday Night Batch Run Wed. Night Batch Run Monday Transactions Wednesday Transactions Tuesday Transactions Archive Monday Master Tuesday Master Wednesday Master
Availability assurance: On-line systems Kiosk Dual ATMs at each site The Fault-Tolerant Bank Dual Fault-Tolerant Replicated Database Data Centers Replicated Database