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Ethical and Social Impacts of Information Technology. IT trends and ethics Principles of technology ethics Major issues related to information privacy Internet cookies Software tools Challenges to intellectual property rights. Ethical and Social Impact of Information Technology.

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ethical and social impacts of information technology
Ethical and Social Impacts of Information Technology
  • IT trends and ethics
  • Principles of technology ethics
  • Major issues related to information privacy
  • Internet cookies
  • Software tools
  • Challenges to intellectual property rights
ethical and social impact of information technology
Ethical and Social Impact of Information Technology
  • Moral dimensions of information systems
    • Information rights and cookies
    • Intellectual property rights
    • Accountability
    • System quality
    • Quality of life
key it trends that raise ethics issues
Key IT Trends That Raise Ethics Issues
  • Increasing computing power
    • IT-enabling core business processes increases our dependence on systems and vulnerability to system failures
    • Social rules and laws not adjusted to this dependence
  • Declining data storage costs
    • Indiscriminate storage of data by organizations may lead to privacy violations
    • Large amounts of data also leads to questions about effective control and management of the data
key it trends that raise ethics issues4
Key IT Trends That Raise Ethics Issues
  • Advances in data analysis
    • Data mining and other data analysis techniques allow companies to know more detailed personal information about individuals
    • Profiling leads to concerns about privacy protection
  • Advances in networking
    • Reduced costs of moving and accessing large quantity of customer information may lead to large-scale privacy violation concerns
principles of technology ethics
Principles of Technology Ethics
  • Proportionality – the good achieved by the technology must outweigh the harm or risk
  • Informed Consent – those affected by the technology should understand and accept the risks
  • Justice – the benefits and burdens of the technology should be distributed fairly
  • Minimized Risk – even if judged acceptable by the other three guidelines, the technology must be implemented so as to avoid all unnecessary risk
major privacy issues
Major Privacy Issues
  • Accessing individuals’ private e-mail conversations and computer records, and collecting and sharing information about individuals gained from their visits to Internet websites and newsgroups
  • Always knowing where a person is, especially as mobile and paging services become more closely associated with people rather than places
major privacy issues7
Major Privacy Issues
  • Using customer information gained from many sources to market additional business services
  • Collecting telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, credit card numbers, and other personal information to build individual customer profiles
societal solutions
Societal Solutions
  • Many of the detrimental effects of information technology are caused by individuals or organizations that are not accepting the ethical responsibility for their actions.
  • Technology developments and trends will continue to challenge our ability to control un-ethical behavior by individuals and organizations
  • Organizational policies and individual behavior are more important than technology to controlling un-ethical use of IS
  • Like other powerful technologies, information technology possesses the potential for great harm or great good for all human kind.
how cookie works
How Cookie Works
  • When a user chooses to view a Web-site through a Web browser, a request is sent from the client to the Web server running the Web-site
  • The Web server sends the Web page and a small data file, called cookie, to the client
  • The cookie has a unique user ID and the information given by the web server and is stored on the user’s computer
  • Whenever the user goes back to this Web-site, the Web server retrieves the cookie and uses it to identify the user
  • The Web server can use the cookie data to personalize the Web-site being displayed on the user’s computer
some cookie facts
Some Cookie Facts
  • Contrary to popular belief, cookies
    • cannot "read" information off your hard drive
    • cannot "divulge" credit card information unknowingly
    • cannot "reveal" personal information about you
  • Browsers and cookies
    • Browsers don't have to accept cookies
    • If they do, then it is the browser that decides if/when to send cookie information as part of its web communication
    • Browsers only send back "exact copies" of the cookie that they originally received from a Web server without adding additional information
    • Web servers can only make a polite request that they receive it on future communication. Browsers are free to ignore it
    • Browsers only send cookie information back to the specific Web server where it originated. Your browser will not (and cannot) send cookie information to, say, Site A that it originally received from Site B.

Source: John Charlesworth at http://www.weav.bc.ca/weavnews/article.htm?42

software tools to protect privacy
Software Tools to Protect Privacy
  • Spyware/adware (badware)
    • Comet cursor, Flyswat, Radiate
  • Anti-spyware
    • Webroot Software Inc.'s Spy Sweeper
    • LavaSoft's Ad-Aware
    • Tenebril Inc.'s SpyCatcher
    • Spybot Search & Destroy
    • Computer Associates Inc.'s eTrust PestPatrol
  • Pop-up blockers
    • Zero popup, STOPzilla, AdSmasher
internet challenges to intellectual property rights
Internet Challenges to Intellectual Property Rights
  • Digital media is easy to replicate, easy to transmit, easy to alter, and easy to steal
  • Internet and the proliferation of networks makes it easy to distribute digital content
  • Information can be illegally copied and distributed through networks even without the willing participation of the networks