The Executive Branch “The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.”
Possible Presidential Candidate for 2008 • Republicans: John McCain Senator from Arizona, Rudy Giuliani former Mayor of New York, Mitch Romney Governor of Massachusetts • Democrats: Hillary Clinton Senator from New York, Barack Obama Senator from Illinois, Joseph Biden Senator from Delaware, Al Gore former V.P. of U.S., John Kerry Senator from Massachusetts, John Edwards former Senator from North Carolina
John McCain Senator from Arizona and Rudy Guiliani former Mayor of New York
Hillary Clinton Senator from New York and Barack Obama Senator from Illinois
John Edwards former V.P. candidate and John Kerry former Presidential candidate
Joseph Biden Senator from Delawareand Al Gore former V.P. and Presidential Candidate.
Geographic Presidential Politics-(note to Mr. Mosser –go to favorites)
Presidential Geographic Politics Continued • The goal for a Republican candidate for President is to hold the south and the mountain west and then pick up either Ohio, Pennsylvania, Michigan, or Wisconsin. • The goal for a Democrat candidate for President is to hold the northeast and far west, win the Midwest (especially Ohio and Michigan, and somehow win a southern state or two. • What has happened recently in Virginia that gives renewed hope to the democrat party that they might be able to win Virginia?
Go to quiz and write down questions • You will need to write down answers as I go along so that you will do well on quiz.
U.S. Presidents • George Washington 1789 • John Adams 1797 • Thomas Jefferson 1801 • James Madison 1809 • James Monroe 1817 • John Q. Adams 1825
U.S. Presidents 7. Andrew Jackson 1829 8. Martin Van Buren 1837 9. William H. Harrison 1841 10. John Tyler 1841 11. James K. Polk 1845 12. Zachary Taylor 1849
U.S. Presidents 13. Millard Fillmore 1850 14. Franklin Pierce 1853 15. James Buchanan 1857 16. Abraham Lincoln 1861 17. Andrew Johnson 1865 18. Ulysses S. Grant 1869
U.S. Presidents 19. Rutherford B. Hayes 1877 20. James A. Garfield 1881 21. Chester Arthur 1881 22. Grover Cleveland 1885 23. Benjamin Harrison 1889 24. Grover Cleveland 1893 25. William McKinley 1897
U.S. Presidents 26. Theodore Roosevelt 1901 Republican 27. William H. Taft 1909 Republican 28. Woodrow Wilson 1913 Democrat 29. Warren G. Harding 1921 Republican 30. Calvin Coolidge 1923 Republican 31. Herbert Hoover 1929 Republican
Copy list next two slides • You will have to be able to list on the next Quiz the Presidents in order since 1945 beginning with Harry Truman (11 Presidents). You will also need to know what party they represented. • For extra credit you can name the candidate they defeated from the other party.
U.S. Presidents 32. Franklin D. Roosevelt 1933 Democrat 33. Harry Truman 1945 Democrat defeated Dewey 34. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1953 Republican defeated Adalai Stevenson twice 35. John F. Kennedy 1961 Democrat defeated Richard Nixon 36. Lyndon B. Johnson 1963 Democrat defeated Barry Goldwater 37. Richard M. Nixon 1969 Republican defeated Hubert Humphrey and George McGovern
U.S. Presidents 38. Gerald R. Ford 1974 Republican 39. James E. Carter 1977 Democrat defeated Gerald Ford 40. Ronald W. Reagan 1981 Republican defeated Jimmy Carter and Walter Mondale 41. George H.W. Bush 1989 Republican defeated Michael Dukakis 42. William J. Clinton 1993 Democrat defeated George H.W. Bush and Robert Dole 43. George W. Bush 2001 Republican defeated Al Gore and John Kerry. 44. ?????????????????????? 2009
Quiz 1. What powers are vested in the President? 2. Which President got 100% of the electoral college? 3. Which two Presidents were impeached? 4. Which President resigned? 5. Which President was also a Supreme Court Justice? 6. Which President was elected 4 times? 7. Which President was assassinated in 1963? 8. Which President made the decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945? 9. Which President was the only President not to be elected President or Vice President? 10. Which President actually led the army to put down a rebellion? 11. Which President had laws passed that could have put people in jail that criticized the President? 12. Which President was responsible for the Louisiana Purchase even though he questioned if he had the authority to make such a purchase?
Quiz continued 13. Which President suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus allowing suspected spies to be imprisoned without a trial? 14. Which President was the first President to order troops into combat without a declaration of war (been done over 200 times since)? 15. List three possible republican candidates for President in 2008 mentioned in class. 16. List three possible democrat candidates for President in 2008 mentioned in class. 17. In the last two Presidential elections what two regions of the country were dominated by the Republican candidate? 18. In the last two Presidential elections what two regions of the country were dominated by the Democrat candidate ? 19. List the Presidents of the United States in order since 1945. Give the political party of each. 20. Extra Credit---give the candidate they defeated in each election.
Qualifications 35 years old • The youngest person to become President was Teddy Roosevelt. He became President at 42 when William McKinley was assassinated. • The youngest person elected President was John F. Kennedy at 43. • The oldest President elected was Ronald Reagan. He was elected to his second term at age 73.
Qualifications continued Natural Born Citizen • Martin Van Buren was the first President born in the United States. • Arnold Schwarzenegger (Governor of California) can not run for President unless the Constitution is changed. • You can be a natural born citizen by blood or by soil.
Qualifications continued Live in the United States for 14 years. • It is possible for someone to be born a U.S. citizen but live most of their life somewhere else.
Review • List the three Constitutional qualifications for the President and Vice President of the United States. • Who was the first President to be born in the United States? • What are the ways to be a natural born citizen? • Who was the youngest person to become President? Youngest to be elected? Oldest President elected?
Review Continued • Be able to define Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy • What is the nickname for the Federal Reserve? • What items do the American people usually look at when trying to determine the quality of the economy?
Powers of the President • Powers are derived from four sources: 1. The Constitution 2. Supreme Court interpretation of Constitution 3. past Presidential actions 4. laws and resolutions passed by Congress. • There has been an ongoing argument over how strong the President should be. Some claim that President Bush is an “Imperial President” and think that the President should be subservient to Congress. Others believe that the President should be on an equal footing with the Congress and at times of War the President has greater powers than Congress.
Executive Power • Executive Power of the President includes: Ordinance Power---the power to issue executive orders that have the effect of law. • Example 1: President Roosevelt ordering Japanese Americans to be interned in camps during WWII. ---Do you see any similarities with President Bush’s order to tap phone calls of American citizens? • Example 2: declaring New Orleans a disaster area and making it eligible for federal assistance.
President Bush’s order to wiretap American citizens without court order. • On Sept. 14, 2001 the Congress of the United States passed a resolution that said that the President shall use “all necessary and appropriate force to fight those who are responsible for the Sept. 11 attacks”. • Does this order, plus the President’s Constitutional power of Commander in Chief, give President Bush the power to wiretap phone calls of people in America making or receiving phone calls from other nations, without a court order?
Administrative Power • Directs and administers 2.7 million government workers. (most are not appointed by the President) • Responsible for administering a 2 Trillion dollar budget every year. • Example: directs office of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA)
Appointment Power • With the consent of the Senate the President appoints most of the top ranking officers of the federal government. • Examples: ambassadors and diplomats, Cabinet members (ex. Secretary of State Condolezza Rice and Defense Department Secretary Robert Gates), heads of independent agencies, all federal judges, all officers in the armed forces.
Removal Power • In general, the President may remove those whom he or she appoints. • 1867 Andrew Johnson is impeached by House and tried in Senate for removing Edwin Stanton as Secretary of War. The Congress had passed a law that forbade the President to fire someone who the Senate had confirmed. The law was repealed in 1787.
The Senate refused to convict and remove Johnson, but by only one vote.
Power to make treaties • The President acting through his or her Secretary of State negotiates treaties. • The United States Senate approves the treaty by a two-thirds vote. • In 1920 The Senate rejected the Treaty of Versailles that was negotiated by President Wilson. Many of the Senators did not like the creation of the League of Nations which was the forerunner to the United Nations.
Executive Agreements • Presidents sometimes use Executive Agreements to accomplish the same thing as a treaty---An executive agreement does not need Senate approval. • Example: Franklin Roosevelt’s deal with Winston Churchill in 1940 where American destroyers were given in return for British military bases at the beginning of World War II.
The Power of Recognition • When the President receives the diplomatic representative of another nation, the President exercises his or her power of recognition. • This means that the President acknowledges the legal existence of that country and its government. • Teddy Roosevelt’s recognition of the new country of Panama in 1903. • Harry Truman’s recognition of the new country of Israel in 1948.
Power of Commander in Chief • The President has direct control of 2 million men and women in the military. • The President can promote and demote military personnel. • President George Washington actually went with the troops and led them in putting down the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794. • The Congress actually has the power to declares war not the President. However, Presidents have sent troops into battle without a declaration of war over 200 times. Examples: Vietnam, Korea, Afghanistan, Iraq
Commander in Chief Continued • John Adams in 1798 was the first President to send troops into battle without a declaration of war. • In times of declared war the Presidents powers are far greater than in times of peace. Example: during WW II the Congress gave the President the power to ration food, gasoline, control wages and prices, and seize and operate private industries.
Legislative Powers • The President gives a “State of the Union” address to a joint session of Congress each year. Here the President reviews the past years accomplishments and recommends future action. • Recommend legislation—President Bush recommended to Congress that we cut taxes---Congress passed the tax cuts and President Bush signed them into law. (Social Security reform recommended by Bush did not pass)