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African American Studies 40A

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  1. African American Studies 40A Week 2: African Origins and Early Forced Migration 1450-1800

  2. What has been the relationship between African Americans and Africa? • When and where does African American history start? • What connects African Americans to each other?

  3. Manifest Destiny- Belief that God gave Europeans the right to colonize and control people who did not share the same religious beliefs and national origins.

  4. Key concepts for the filmAfricans in AmericaChapters 1-3 • Indentured servitude • Freedom Dues • Antonio the Negro a.k.a. Anthony Johnson • British definition of slavery • The Terrible Transformation • Royal African Company

  5. Experts in the Field • Barry Unsworth, author • Peter H. Wood, historian • Thelma Foote, historian (former UCI professor) • Timothy H. Breen, historian • Thomas J. Davis, historian • David W. Blight, historian • Frances B. Latimer, historian • Chinua Achebe, author

  6. The Institution of Racial Slavery • Up until the 1640s, distinction was made by national origin and religion • Europeans did not distinguish themselves as being White • Africans and Europeans regarded each other equally regarding the color of their skin

  7. In the mid 17th century skin color became a factor: • “Darker became wrong.” Johnson and Smith, Africans in America, page 86.

  8. Skin Color used for Discrimination • Europeans expanded their justification for dominating other groups. • Instead of believing that God gave them the right to dominate any non-Christians through slavery, they believed that they could dominate any non-Whites through slavery.

  9. Skin Color used for Discrimination Essentially Europeans used skin color for discrimination because they were both lazy and greedy. To explain: • 1) Religious differences were not visual. • 2) Differences in skin color were visual • Discrimination because of skin color was an easy way to create disunity among equally mistreated servants, both European and African. • Assigning value to skin color was a simple way to separate a unified front.

  10. In the 1650s Europeans begin calling themselves White to distinguish themselves as superior to Negroes.

  11. Key concepts for ThursdayAfricans inAmerica • Olaudah Equiano • El Mina • Transatlantic Slave Trade • The Middle Passage • Barbados Model • Nation within a Nation • Stono Rebellion • Jemmy • Plot of 1741

  12. Additional Expert in the Field Norrece T. Jones, Jr., historian

  13. Africans imported to the New World Brazil: 4 million to 5 million by Portugal British Caribbean: 2.5 to 3 million Spanish America: 2 million French Caribbean 1.6 million British North America: 550 thousand Dutch Caribbean: 50 thousand Danish Caribbean: 50 thousand

  14. The Transatlantic Slave Trade The three part trade from Europe to the West Coast of Africa, to the Colonies, and back to Europe. Part 1: Slave traders sail from Europe with industrialized goods primarily rum, cloth, and cigarettes. Once at port in West Africa, these products are traded for West and Central African peoples.

  15. Part 2: In the colonies, the African peoples are traded for raw goods primarily sugar, tobacco, cotton, rice, indigo, and fur. Part 3: The raw goods are taken back to Europe to be made into consumer products i.e. rum, cigarettes, and cloth.

  16. Questions for Discussion ?- What is the Barbados model? ?- What is the nation within a nation? ?- What were the consequences of the “nation within a nation” in South Carolina? ?- What does “The Plot of 1741” tell us about the impact of the slavery system on Whites?