African American Studies 40A Week 2: African Origins and Early Forced Migration 1450-1800
What has been the relationship between African Americans and Africa? • When and where does African American history start? • What connects African Americans to each other?
Manifest Destiny- Belief that God gave Europeans the right to colonize and control people who did not share the same religious beliefs and national origins.
Key concepts for the filmAfricans in AmericaChapters 1-3 • Indentured servitude • Freedom Dues • Antonio the Negro a.k.a. Anthony Johnson • British definition of slavery • The Terrible Transformation • Royal African Company
Experts in the Field • Barry Unsworth, author • Peter H. Wood, historian • Thelma Foote, historian (former UCI professor) • Timothy H. Breen, historian • Thomas J. Davis, historian • David W. Blight, historian • Frances B. Latimer, historian • Chinua Achebe, author
The Institution of Racial Slavery • Up until the 1640s, distinction was made by national origin and religion • Europeans did not distinguish themselves as being White • Africans and Europeans regarded each other equally regarding the color of their skin
In the mid 17th century skin color became a factor: • “Darker became wrong.” Johnson and Smith, Africans in America, page 86.
Skin Color used for Discrimination • Europeans expanded their justification for dominating other groups. • Instead of believing that God gave them the right to dominate any non-Christians through slavery, they believed that they could dominate any non-Whites through slavery.
Skin Color used for Discrimination Essentially Europeans used skin color for discrimination because they were both lazy and greedy. To explain: • 1) Religious differences were not visual. • 2) Differences in skin color were visual • Discrimination because of skin color was an easy way to create disunity among equally mistreated servants, both European and African. • Assigning value to skin color was a simple way to separate a unified front.
In the 1650s Europeans begin calling themselves White to distinguish themselves as superior to Negroes.
Key concepts for ThursdayAfricans inAmerica • Olaudah Equiano • El Mina • Transatlantic Slave Trade • The Middle Passage • Barbados Model • Nation within a Nation • Stono Rebellion • Jemmy • Plot of 1741
Additional Expert in the Field Norrece T. Jones, Jr., historian
Africans imported to the New World Brazil: 4 million to 5 million by Portugal British Caribbean: 2.5 to 3 million Spanish America: 2 million French Caribbean 1.6 million British North America: 550 thousand Dutch Caribbean: 50 thousand Danish Caribbean: 50 thousand
The Transatlantic Slave Trade The three part trade from Europe to the West Coast of Africa, to the Colonies, and back to Europe. Part 1: Slave traders sail from Europe with industrialized goods primarily rum, cloth, and cigarettes. Once at port in West Africa, these products are traded for West and Central African peoples.
Part 2: In the colonies, the African peoples are traded for raw goods primarily sugar, tobacco, cotton, rice, indigo, and fur. Part 3: The raw goods are taken back to Europe to be made into consumer products i.e. rum, cigarettes, and cloth.
Questions for Discussion ?- What is the Barbados model? ?- What is the nation within a nation? ?- What were the consequences of the “nation within a nation” in South Carolina? ?- What does “The Plot of 1741” tell us about the impact of the slavery system on Whites?