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UNIT 9. Indian Removal Cattle Drives Railroads. 1866 - U.S. sent soldiers to build forts & protect the settlers in TX. * Not effective Too spread out Not enough soldiers / supplies Untrained in Indian warfare.

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unit 9

UNIT 9

Indian Removal

Cattle Drives

Railroads

1866 u s sent soldiers to build forts protect the settlers in tx
1866- U.S. sent soldiers to build forts & protect the settlers in TX.

* Not effective

  • Too spread out
  • Not enough soldiers /supplies
  • Untrained in Indian warfare
slide3
1867- Treaty of Medicine Lodge:Native Americans would stop raiding & move to reservations in exchange for food & shelter.

* Not Effective

  • Some tribes would not sign or go to reservations
  • Agents provided inadequate shelter & food
  • Some Native Americans left reservations to raid
slide4
1871 –1876 Frontier CampaignsArmy was sent out to destroy N. American camps & force them onto reservation.

Several chiefs fought back.

  • Satanta– Kiowa killed himself in the Huntsville prison
  • Quanah Parker – Comanche w/white mother Cynthia Ann, surrender in 1875 at Ft. Sill
  • Victorio – Apache captured & killed by buffalo soldiers in Mex. 1880
reasons the army defeated the plains indians
Reasons -the army defeated the Plains Indians
  • Invention -colt six shooter & other repeating guns evens the odds
  • Buffalo hunter destroyed their way of life
    • * 3.7 million were killed in 2yrs
cattle drives started after the civil war 1865
Cattle Drives- started after the Civil War (1865)
  • North needed beef
  • RR’s expanded into Central Plains
  • Est. 5 million wild longhorns in TX.
profitable
Profitable
  • Free cattle sold for $5 in the south up to $40 in the North
  • Moved in the Spring to feed on grass
  • Needed only 10 -12 men to move 2,000
trail drives hard work
Trail drives hard work
  • 18 hr. days (night hawking)
  • Most cowboys were young
  • 20% dropped out of the drive
  • Dangerous:
    • River crossings
    • Stampedes
    • Weather
    • Rustlers
section 1 4
Section 1-4

1 out of 6 cowboys were:

* Black

* Mexican

* Native American

* Even women & children went on cattle drive

African American cowhand

famous trails ranches
Famous Trails & Ranches
  • Chisholm – named after Native American Jessie Chisholm
  • Sedalia – closed due to Texas fever
  • Great Western – ended in Ogallala, Neb.
  • Goodnight Loving – ended in Wyoming

http://www.wchm-tx.org/Chisholm_trail.htm

reasons why trail driving ended
Reasons Why Trail Driving Ended
  • RR’s came to Texas
  • Price of cattle dropped
  • Disease closed some trails
  • Invention of barbwire- closed the trails
slide12

Railroads – move people and goods quickly and cheaply

400 miles of track before the Civil War

10,000 miles by 1900

Land grants encourage RR’s to build

Cities w/several RR’s became trade centers

unit 11 westward expansion
Unit 11 Westward Expansion
  • Campaign
  • Agent
  • Commissary
  • Renegade
  • Open Range
  • Vaquero
  • Stockyard
  • Drover
  • Wrangler
  • Quarantine