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Pregnancy & Development. P & A. IX. Pregnancy. A. Def: condition resulting in union of sperm and egg and a fetus developing in the uterus B. How occur? 1. semen containing sperm is deposited in vagina 2. sperm travels up through uterus & uterine tubes

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ix pregnancy
IX. Pregnancy
  • A. Def: condition resulting in union of sperm and egg and a fetus developing in the uterus
  • B. How occur?
    • 1. semen containing sperm is deposited in vagina
    • 2. sperm travels up through uterus & uterine tubes
      • A. able to move b/c of tails and sugary energy
      • B. estrogen is high in first part of menstrual cycle
        • - causes uterus and cervix to create a watery secretion that aids in sperm transport
      • C. second part of cycle progesterone is high
        • - secretion prevents good sperm travel
slide3
3. when sperm penetrates egg membrane, nuclei of the two combine = 46 chromosomes
    • A. first cell of life = ZYGOTE
    • B. after 32 hrs = zygote starts dividing = mitosis
    • C. zygote now called EMBRYO
    • D. after 3 days, embryo arrives to uterus
    • E. after 1 week – embryo attached in uterine wall
      • Endometrium
    • F. after 8 weeks – now called FETUS
      • Body is recognizable as human
    • G. outer embryo/fetus cells and endometrium form the placenta
      • Def: bloody sac that exchanges nutrients, gases, and wastes between mother and baby
      • Also acts as a barrier to some toxins
c hormonal changes in pregnancy
c. Hormonal changes in pregnancy
  • 1. human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
    • A. def: hormone that prevents normal decline in estrogen and progesterone that causes uterine lining to shed away (menstruation)
      • Hormone that a pregnancy test detects
    • B. if this hormone fails or there is not enough = miscarriage will result
  • 2. placental estrogen
    • A. def: hormone secreted by placenta that maintains thick uterine wall
      • 1. also causes relaxation of pelvic joints – helps in birthing process
slide5
3. placental lactogen
    • A. hormone secreted by the placenta that allows for breast development and milk production
x embryonic dev 2 nd 8 th week
X. Embryonic dev (2nd-8th week)
  • A. germ layers
    • 1. def: layers of cells in an embryo that arise to form body structures
      • A. ectoderm: nervous system, hair, nails, skin, mouth, anal canal
      • B. mesoderm: muscle, bone, blood, lymph, reproductive organs
      • C. endoderm: digestive, respiratory, and urinary tracts
  • B. pre-natal nourishment
    • 1. amnion
      • A. membrane around embryo
      • B. filled with fluid = amniotic fluid
        • Contains same cells as baby = samples used for genetic testing
slide7
C. umbilical cord forms
        • 1. provides a pathway for nutrients from placenta to embryo
  • C. By the end of the 8th week
    • Baby length = 30 mm
    • Baby weight = less than 5 g.
    • ** THESE FIRST FEW MONTHS ARE VERY CRITICAL IN BABIES’ DEVELOPMENT
      • - mother should immediately see Dr. when suspect pregnant
      • - nutrition is very important!
xi fetal development 9 th week birth
xi. Fetal development – 9th week - birth
  • ** Lunar month = 28 days
  • A. 3rd lunar month
    • 1. body length grows greatly
    • 2. head growth slows
    • 3. ossification centers develop
    • 4. by end of 12th week, reproductive organs visible
  • B. 4th lunar month
    • 1. body grows to 13-17 cm
    • 2. skeleton ossifies
slide9
C. 5th lunar month
    • 1. growth supresses
    • 2. skeletal muscles active = mother feels movement
    • 3. hair develops
  • D. 6th lunar month
    • 1. large weight gain
    • 2. eyebrows and eyelashes appear
  • E. 7th lunar month
    • 1. fat deposited = smooths out skin
    • 2. eyelids open
    • 3. approx 37 cm in length
slide10
F. 8th lunar month
    • 1. testes of male descend
      • * sometimes this doesn’t happen and surgery is needed
  • G. 9th lunar month
    • 1. body chubby b/c of fat deposits
    • 2. skin pink
  • H. 10th lunar month
    • 1. full term
    • 2. skin sebum coated
    • 3. scalp has hair
    • 4. skull bones ossified
    • 5. nails developed
    • 6. head positioned to cervix
xii fetal circulation
XII. Fetal circulation
  • A. blood in the pulmonary artery bypasses the lungs by entering DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS
    • - which brings blood back to aorta
xiii labor
xiii. labor
  • A. uterine & vaginal stretching in late pregnancy
    • 1. initiates hypothalamus to signal posterior pituitary gland
    • 2. PPG releases oxytocin
      • - stimulates uterine contractions
    • 3. rhythmic contractions send uterine contents to cervix
      • - signals stronger contractions = POSITIVE FEEDBACK
    • 4. fetus forced outside
    • 5. 10-15 minutes after birth, placenta separates from uterine wall & is delivered
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