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Chapter 13. Early Japan and Feudalism. Themes and Concepts. Geography How did Japan’s geographic setting contribute to its development? Movement of People and Goods What influence did China and Korea have on Japan? Political System How did the system of feudalism work in Japan?

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chapter 13

Chapter 13

Early Japan and Feudalism

themes and concepts
Themes and Concepts
  • Geography
    • How did Japan’s geographic setting contribute to its development?
  • Movement of People and Goods
    • What influence did China and Korea have on Japan?
  • Political System
    • How did the system of feudalism work in Japan?
  • Economic Systems and Cutlure
    • In what ways did the economy and culture flourish during its later feudal age?
key terms
Key Terms
  • Shinto
  • Kami
  • Zen Buddhism
  • Shoguns
  • Daimyo
  • Samurai
  • Bushido
  • Kabuki
  • Haiku
major physical features
Major Physical Features
  • Japan is made up of a chain of mountainous island in the pacific Ocean off the coast of mainland Asia
  • Four main islands and more than 3,000 smaller islands
  • Ring of Fire
    • A group of islands around the Pacific Ocean that are vulnerable to earthquakes and volcanoes
    • Underground earthquakes can cause deadly tidal waves to sweep over the islands
impact of japanese life
Impact of Japanese Life
  • Because of mountainous islands… land is hard to farm
  • Most of the population has always lived in narrow river valleys or along a coast line
  • This terrain sometimes acted as a barrier to political unity
  • Japanese learned to use the sea for food and for transportation
    • The sea acted as protection
    • Also isolated Japan from other cultures
impact on japanese life
Impact on Japanese Life
  • This experience of living in an unsettled natural environment taught the Japanese a deep respect for the forces of nature
    • Forces of nature like volcanoes, earthquakes, and tidal waves
shintoism
Shintoism
  • Traditional Japanese religion
    • Shinto, meaning “the way of the gods”
  • Characterized by the worship of kami
    • Kami, or divine spirits found in all living and nonliving things
  • The shared beliefs of the followers of Shinto eventually helped unite all of Japan
  • These Shinto shrines still appear throughout Japan in places of unusual natural beauty
diffusion from korea and china
Diffusion From Korea and China
  • Japanese culture
    • Unique blend of its own traditions and ideas borrowed from nearby civilizations of Korea and China
    • Korea often acted as a bridge between China and Japan
  • Koreans introduced the Japanese to various aspects of Chinese culture
  • 600 A.D Japan sent nobles to study in China
  • Between the 700s and 1100s, the Japanese blended the best of China with their own traditions to produce a distinctly Japanese civilization
chinese influence on writing
Chinese Influence on writing
  • Koreans brought the Chinese system of writing to the Japanese
  • When the Tang began to decline the Japanese adapted the Chinese system of writing to suit their own language and ideas
buddhism
Buddhism
  • Koreans also brought Buddhism from China
    • This religion spread quickly
    • Zen Buddhism spread throughout Japan
      • Value peace, simple living, nature, and beauty
confucianism
Confucianism
  • Japanese were also influenced by the Chinese philosophy of Confucianism
  • Confucian ideas took root
  • These ideas included:
    • Loyalty
    • Honoring parents, and a respect for learning and the educated class
customs and the arts
Customs and the Arts
  • Tea drinking and the tea ceremony were adopted by Japanese courts
  • Music and dancing, along with garden design became very popular
  • Buddhism monasteries were built to look like Chinese monasteries
imperial tradition

Imperial Tradition

Feudal Japan

imperial tradition1
Imperial Tradition
  • Early society was organized into clans
    • Each clan with separate rulers and religious customs
  • The Yamato gained control over the largest island in Japan
    • Claimed to be direct descendants of the sun goddess
    • The emperor today no longer claims divinity, but he still traces his roots to the Yamato clan
feudal japan
Feudal Japan
  • In the 1100s, central authority declined
  • Warlords fought one another
    • While armies fought, a feudal system was developed
  • Feudal society had distinct levels and all members had a defined place in it
landowners and warriors
Landowners and Warriors
  • The emperor still ruled in name, but powerful warrior nobles actually controlled the country
  • Shoguns (top military commanders) had the real power
    • They set up dynasties called shogunates
  • Daimyo (landowners) received lands in exchange for a promise to support the shogun with their armies when needed
landowners and warriors1
Landowners and Warriors
  • Samurai (“those who serve”) were granted land. In return they promised loyalty to the daimyo
  • They lived by a strict code of conduct known as bushido, or “they way of the warrior”
  • Samurai promised to be loyal, brave and honorable.
    • Honor was supremely important
    • Samurai who betrayed the code were expected to commit ritual suicide (seppuku)
other classes and groups
Other classes and Groups
  • Peasants and Artisans
    • Peasants farmed the land
    • Artisans made weapons for the samurai
    • Peasants and artisans were granted the protection of the samurai
  • Merchants
    • Lowest social class
    • Would gain more influence
    • Usually more wealthy than upper class
  • Women
    • Status declined
    • Inheritance was passed on to sons only
tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Created a centralized feudal government
  • Halted the fighting among powerful daimyo
    • Forced them to live in the capital Edo (Tokyo)
    • Once they left, their families were forced to stay and be watched over
tokugawa shogunate1
Tokugawa Shogunate
  • The new stability resulted in economic gains
  • New seeds, tools, and techniques allowed farmers to grow more food
  • Trade, population, and towns all increased
  • In cities a wealthy class of merchants emerged
tokugawa shogunate2
Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Became extremely hostile toward foreigners
  • By 1633 they barred all western merchants and prohibited Japanese from traveling abroad
  • During this period of strict isolation, internal trade boomed, economy prospered
tokugawa shogunate3
Tokugawa Shogunate
  • During this period many learned Zen Buddhism
  • Made advances in the arts and theater
    • Kabuki
      • Colorful costumes
      • Acted out stories about family or events in history
      • Created a Chinese influenced form of poetry… haiku
comparison
Comparison
  • Japanese feudalism was similar to European
  • Both evolved in response to the need for stability
  • Both provided a way for ruling classes to preserve law and order
  • Everyone had a well defined place in society
  • Power and wealth were concentrated in elite land-owning class
comparison1
Comparison
  • Knights and Samurai were very similar in the role they played in their feudal systems
  • Peasants in both feudal systems worked the land and served the landowners in exchange for protection
  • Religion
    • Leaders in the Catholic church had more political power than Zen Buddhist monks
  • Role of women
    • Japan: status declined
    • Europe: code of chivalry helped raise their status
summary
Summary
  • Japan was strongly influenced by geographic conditions
  • It borrowed cultural elements from China, but adapted them
  • Decline in the power of the emperor led to feudal development
  • Tokugawa shogunate emerged bringing stability
summary1
Summary
  • Tokugawa brought a strict government and social structure
    • Consisting of unequal classes
  • Landowners and warriors dominated Japanese society