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Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile. Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile. The Nile River Longest river in the world (4,160 miles) Branches into the White Nile and the Blue Nile Flows from South to North Easy transportation each way Winds blew north to south to allow sailing Floods annually

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ancient kingdoms of the nile1
Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile
  • The Nile River
    • Longest river in the world (4,160 miles)
    • Branches into the White Nile and the Blue Nile
    • Flows from South to North
      • Easy transportation each way
      • Winds blew north to south to allow sailing
    • Floods annually
  • Egyptians built their civilization near the delta
nile river
Nile River
  • Farmers learned irrigation
    • Allowed them to grow up to 3 crops per year
    • Possible to feed a large population
  • Building materials
    • Rich deposits of granite, sandstone, and limestone
nile river1
Nile River
  • Other advantages
    • Isthmus of Suez formed a land bridge between Africa and Asia (p. 21)
    • Why was this important?
  • What are other advantages?
  • 3000 B.C.
    • Egyptians developed hieroglyphics, a form of writing
    • Pictures and symbols represented words and sounds
    • Carved into stone, then later on papyrus (where we got our word “paper”)
rosetta stone
Rosetta Stone
  • In 1798, the French invaded Egypt
    • Rosetta Stone was discovered
      • Contained passages in Greek, hieroglyphics, and an Egyptian style called demotic
    • Modern scholars who could read the Greek text, used it to decode the hieroglyphics
    • Why is this so important?
egyptian kingdoms
Egyptian Kingdoms
  • 2 similar, yet distinct cultures and kingdoms
    • Upper Egypt
      • Southern kingdom
    • Lower Egypt
      • Upper kingdom
  • 3200 B.C.
    • Menes, king of Upper Egypt, united all of Egypt into one kingdom
menes dynasty
Menes Dynasty
  • Dynasty- family of rulers
    • Rule usually passed from father to son
    • Dynasty ends when one family is driven from power or when no family member is left to rule
  • Under Menes
    • New territories
    • Great wealth
    • Improved irrigation and trade
  • Dynastic rulers were called pharaohs
    • Regarded as gods
    • Great temples and tombs were built to honor them
    • Absolute and unlimited power
    • Led the government, served as judge, high priest, and army general
  • From Menes until about 300 B.C., some 30 dynasties ruled Egypt
    • These dynasties are separated into three kingdoms covering different time spans
    • Old Kingdom
    • Middle Kingdom
    • New Kingdom
old kingdom
Old Kingdom
  • 2680 B.C.- 2180 B.C.
    • Advances in the sciences and arts
    • Lower class
      • Peasants and farmers
      • Served in the army and worked on building projects
    • Upper class
      • Pharaoh, noble family, and government officials
first intermediate period
First Intermediate Period
  • Lasted 100 years after the Old Kingdom
    • Period of civil war and internal strife
    • Fought for control of the land
middle kingdom
Middle Kingdom
  • 2050 B.C.-1650 B.C.
    • The Golden Age
      • Stability and prosperity
  • The Hyksos
    • Introduced chariots and the compound bow
    • Rose to power in Egypt around 1650 B.C.
  • Read p. 23 (last two paragraphs)
  • Followed by the Second Intermediate Period
    • 1650 B.C.-1570 B.C.
new kingdom
New Kingdom
  • 1570 B.C.-1080 B.C.
    • Characterized by strong pharaohs and expanding territory
    • Built an empire, ruling over many other people and territories
    • See map on p. 24
      • Answer #2
new kingdom1
New Kingdom
  • Notable Pharaohs
    • Hatshepsut
      • Ruled from 1503 B.C.-1482 B.C.
      • One of the first known female rulers
      • Kept borders secure and built trade with other lands
notable pharaohs
Notable Pharaohs
  • Amenhotep IV
    • Ruled from 1380 B.C.-1362 B.C.
      • Tried to establish monotheism
      • Changed name to Akhenaton-“he who is pleasing to Aton”
      • Aton was the symbol for the sun god
    • Failed to change Egypt’s religious beliefs
egypt s decline
Egypt’s Decline
  • Ramses II
      • AKA Ramses the Great
    • Ruled from 1279 B.C.-1213 B.C.
    • Last of Egypt’s great pharaohs
      • Kept the Egyptian empire together
      • Built many temples and monuments
post imperial period
Post-Imperial Period
  • 1080 B.C.-300’s B.C.
    • Egypt began to weaken due to outside invasions
      • Sea Peoples
      • Assyrians
      • Nubians
      • Persians
    • By the 300’s B.C., Egypt was no longer ruled by Egyptians
  • Architecture and Arts
    • Pyramids
    • Sculptures
    • Paintings
  • Science, Math, and Medicine
    • Calendar to predict flooding
    • Geometry
    • Treated illnesses and preserved the dead
  • Scribes
    • Clerks who learned to read and write to work for the government
    • Education focused mostly on religious instruction
  • Rigid Social Classes
    • Women had many rights
      • Ranked as equals with husbands in business and social affairs
    • Peasants
      • Did most of the farming
      • Kept only a some of the crop, the rest went to the pharaoh
  • Create and complete the chart below
    • You do not need to use complete sentences.
  • Due at the beginning of next class.
  • 12 points
video clip
Video Clip
  • What the Ancients Knew: Egyptians
    • 30 min.