ancient kingdoms of the nile n.
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Ancient Kingdoms of the Nile. GEOGRAPHY OF THE NILE VALLEY. If no Nile, then no Egypt swallowed up by the deserts +deserts protect from invasion : ) -limit settlement : ( BLACK LAND = rich, irrigated, ~10 miles wide RED LAND = sun-baked desert across N. Africa +use Nile Valley for farming.

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geography of the nile valley
  • If no Nile, then no Egypt
    • swallowed up by the deserts

+deserts protect from invasion : )

-limit settlement : (

BLACK LAND = rich, irrigated, ~10 miles wide

RED LAND = sun-baked desert across N. Africa

+use Nile Valley for farming

yearly floods
Yearly Floods
  • people eagerly awaited
  • life-giving water
  • deposits of silt
  • needed to control floods
    • dikes, reservoirs, irrigations ditches, etc
    • store excess for dry season
uniting the land
Uniting the Land
  • 2 regions
  • Upper (south)
    • From 1st cataract to about 100 miles of Mediterranean Sea
  • Lower (north)
    • Delta region
  • King Menes united the 2 regions, 3100BC
    • Used Nile as highway to link north & south
    • Officials & armies could be moved via river
  • Nile = Egypt world’s 1st unified state
    • Served as trade route to Africa, Middle East, Mediterranean world
old kingdom 2700bc 2200bc
  • Government
    • pharaohs organized strong centralized state
    • claimed divine support for rule
    • believed to be a god
    • absolute power over all land in kingdom
    • preserve justice & order
    • depend on vizier to supervise business of gov’ts various dept: tax, farming, irrigation
    • scribes carry out viziers instructions
    • Ptah-hotep
      • wrote “Instruction of Ptah-hotep”
      • training for young officials
  • built during this time
  • still stand @ Giza
  • tombs for eternity due to belief in the afterlife
  • suggest size and strength of ancient Egyptian civilization
  • require great planning and organization
  • Collapse
  • power struggles
  • crop failures
  • cost of pyramids
middle kingdom 2050bc 1800bc
  • turbulent period

-Nile did not rise regularly

-corruption and rebellions common

+large drainage project, more farming land

+occupied Nubia

+trade with people of Middle East & Crete

-/+Hyksos—foreign invaders, 1700BC

*Egyptians awed by horse-drawn chariots

& Egyptians mastered new military technology

*Hyksos impressed by Egyptian civilz and adopted some of customs, beliefs, languages

new kingdom 1550bc 1100bc
  • drove out Hyksos
  • powerful ambitious pharaohs
  • brought into greater contact with western Asia & other parts of Africa
  • Powerful Rulers
  • Hatshepsut, woman ruler who exercised all the rights of a pharaoh
  • Ramses II, most powerful pharaoh of NK
  • after years of fighting Hittites & Egyptians signed a peace treaty, first document known to have survived history “shall be at peace and brotherhood forever”
egypt nubia
  • area that developed to the south of Egypt
  • a.k.a. the Kush
  • Egypt fought or traded with Nubia for centuries
  • under Ramses II used gold from Nubia to pay for charioteers in army, Nubians served in Egyptian armies, left mark on Egyptian culture
  • as Egypt declined, Nubia regained independence, Nubian kings marched north, adding Egypt to their lands
  • Nubians saw themselves not as foreign conquerors but as restorers of Egyptian glory, ruled Egypt like early pharaohs respecting Egyptian traditions
  • Assyrians descended on Egypt & pushed Nubians back