ANCIENT EGYPT QUICK FACTS: • SECOND CIVILIZATION in history • Located in NORTHERN AFRICA. • Bordered by the MEDITERRANEAN and the RED SEA. • First consisted of TWO SOCIETIES: UPPER and LOWER EGYPT.
UNIFICATION OF EGYPT • Pharaoh MENES unified UPPER and LOWER EGYPT in approximately 3200 BCE. • ~30 DYNASTIES (succession of Pharaohs from the same family) ruled over EGYPT over 3000 years.
HOW EGYPTIAN SOCIETY DEVELOPED • Developed around 3000 BCE along the BANKS OF THE NILE. • The RIVER flooded every year, making the SOIL along it’s BANKS very fertile. • AGRICULTURE and PLANNED HARVESTS allowed the civilization to grow.
Check it out! • Dr. David Neiman Teaches Us About The Nile!
IMPORTANCE OF THE NILE • People living along the NILE decided to COOPERATE and POOL THEIR RESOURCES to better take advantage of the FERTILE SOIL. • A SOLE AUTHORITY, the PHARAOH, emerged to manage the NILE RIVER VALLEY.
Check it out! • Dr. David Neiman Teaches Us About IRRIGATION
A SACRED RIVER • Without the Nile, all of Egypt would have been a desert with infertile soil. The Egyptians were devoted to the river: "With you to behold, generation after generation of your children sprout and thrive but men salute you like a king: strong by your own law, when you swell during flood season and reach across Upper and Lower Egypt. All eyes gaze upon each drop of your water, O you who bring so many good things. When your waters rise, offerings are made and bulls sacrificed to you; many victims are immolated in your name, birds are fattened, lions hunted in the desert and bonfires are lit for you. Offerings are made to each of the other gods, as is done for you, O great Nile, along with the best incense, oxen, herds, birds and fires. And so may you make things green, may you make things green, may you make things green, O great Nile, you giver of life to man and to beast!”
REFLECTION! • What did the Egyptians do to draw favours from the Nile? • Did the Nile appear to have divine powers? Explain your answer.
THE PHARAOH • PHARAOH is the top of the EGYPTIAN SOCIAL HIERARCHY. • Assisted by his FAMILY and ENTOURAGE. • Guess what? There were a few FEMALE PHAROAHS! • KING • Pharaoh REPRESENTED THE GODS ON EARTH. • Held ABSOLUTE POWER • Reigned over the UNIFIED EGYPT • INHERITED his POWER.
HIGH PRIEST • Egyptians believed he was the SON of the SUN GOD. • Highest RELIGIOUS AUTHORITY. • GOVERNMENTAL AUTHORITY • Managed the IRRIGATION OF THE NILE. • In charge of TRADE, CONSTRUCTION OF TEMPLES, PUBLIC WORKS, JUSTICE and the ARMY. • Delegated his MOST IMPORTANT TASKS to his VIZIER.
NOBLES and DIGNITARIES • NOBLES • Helped the PHARAOH make DECISIONS. • MEMBERS of the Pharaoh’s FAMILY. • DIGNITARIES • HIGH OFFICIALS and HIGH PRIESTS. • Included HIGH-RANKING MILITARY OFFICIALS during times of WAR. • Very RICH and INFLUENTIAL.
SCRIBES/MERCHANTS/CRAFTSPEOPLE/PRIESTS and SOLDIERS • SCRIBES • PRIVILEGED POSITION • Often lived in TEMPLES or the ROYAL PALACE • ESSENTIAL MEMBERS of society. • Kept RECORDS • Collected and calculated TAXES. • Transcribed LAWS and RULES • Wrote PRAYERS and HYMNS. • PRIESTS • Worked in TEMPLES • Performed RELIGIOUS DUTIES • CRAFTSPEOPLE • Made goods for TRADE. • Made items DESIRED BY THE RICH. • Ex: CLOTHING, FURNITURE, JEWELRY. • MERCHANTS • SOLD the items made by the CRAFTSPEOPLE and ARTISANS. • SOLDIERS • Acted as ARMY and POLICE
PEASANTS • Represented the MAJORITY of EGYPTIANS. • Very important to the EGYPTIAN ECONOMY. • Lived in DIFFICULT CONDITIONS. • Had to pay HIGH TAXES • Worked in IRRIGATION CHANNELS and in the FIELDS.
SLAVES • BOTTOM of Ancient Egyptian SOCIAL HIERARCHY. • Usually PRISONERS OF WAR. • Worked in COAL MINES • Were HOUSEHOLD SERVANTS • Work VARIED depending on OWNERSHIP.
EGYPTIAN RELIGIOUS BELIEFS • Many GODS were honored in Egypt; the EGYPTIANS were POLYTHEISTIC, meaning they believed in MANY GODS.
AMUN-RA: King of the Gods • The GOD OF THE RISING SUN. • The SUN was worshipped in ANCIENT EGYPT as much as the NILE. • WORSHIPPED at the TEMPLE AT KARNAK.
ANUBIS: God of Mummification • Looked after all the MUMMIES and the EMBALMING PROCESS. • INVENTED MUMMIFICATION. • Had a HUMAN BODY with the head of a JACKAL. EARS were POINTY. • Sometimes EMBALMERS wore ANUBIS MASKS while they WORKED.
OSIRIS: God of the Dead and Resurrection • EGYPTIANS believed that OSIRIS was the FIRST PHARAOH. • Taught the EGYPTIANS to FARM. • Turned DESERTS into FERTILE LANDS. • CHIEF GOD of the UNDERWORLD. • IMAGE seen on MUMMIES’ BANDAGES.
ISIS: Goddess of Nature and Magic • Mother of HORUS by OSIRIS. • Patron of SLAVES, ARTISANS, SINNERS and the DOWNTRODDEN. • DAUGHTER of the GODS of the EARTH and SKY.
SETH: God of Chaos • Most EVIL of all the EGYPTIAN GODS. • Associated with CHAOS, CONFUSION and BAD WEATHER. • MURDERED his BROTHER, OSIRIS. • Appeared with a FORKED TAIL and HOOVES, a SNOUT and a SCARY HEAD. • Sometimes took the SHAPE of other MONSTROUS ANIMALS.
HORUS: God of Pharaohs • The SON of ISIS and OSIRIS. • DIVINE PROTECTOR of PHARAOHS. • Linked to WAR. • EYE TORN OUT by his uncle SETH and healed by THOTH. HORUS gave his HEALED EYE to his DEAD FATHER and tried to REVIVE HIM. • Symbol of HEALING and POWER.
BES: God of Family and Health • Protected the HOME and FAMILIES. • WORSHIPPED by PREGNANT WOMEN and WOMEN WHO WANTED TO BECOME PREGNANT. • IMAGE painted in BEDROOMS to ensure a GOOD NIGHT’S REST and SAFETY FROM NIGHTMARES.
KHNUM: God of the Nile • God of the RIVER and of INUNDATION. • Associated with the NILE RIVER and ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SURVIVAL due to the importance of the river’s LIFE-GIVING FLOODS.
MA’AT: Goddess of Truth • Made sure that the SEASONS CHANGED and the STARS MOVED. • Ensured HARMONIOUS RELATIONSHIPS between the GODS and HUMANKIND. • Associated with FEATHERS and the WEIGHING OF THE SOULS.
THOTH: God of Wisdom • In charge of WRITING and SCRIBES. • Usually PORTRAYED as a MAN with the HEAD OF AN IBIS BIRD, but occasionally DEPICTED as a FULL BIRD or BABOON. • In his TEMPLES, IBIS BIRDS were BRED and MUMMIFIED in his HONOR. • Worshipped at HERMOPOLIS (where there is a CEMETARY for MUMMIFIED BABOONS.)
PTAH: The CREATOR GOD • Created the WORLD and the OTHER GODS out of PRECIOUS METALS. • PATRON of CRAFTSMANSHIP. • WORSHIPPED in MEMPHIS. • Married to SEKHMET.
HATHOR: Goddess of Love and Music • VERY-LOVED goddess. • Associated with LOVE, MUSIC, FESTIVALS, FEASTING and HAPPINESS. • Associated with COWS.
EGYPTIAN KNOWLEDGE • Egypt does not appear to have SPREAD ITS KNOWLEDGE very broadly. • ADOPTED a great deal from OTHER CULTURES. • MERCHANTS travelling brought NEW KNOWLEDGE TO EGYPT. • From MESOPOTAMIANS: WRITING, MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS, USE OF WHEEL and BRONZE CASTING. • MEDICINE • TREATMENT of some ILLNESSES • REPAIRING of BROKEN BONES • BASIC KNOWLEDGE of SURGERY (used on live bodies and during MUMMIFICATION processes) • MATHEMATICS • Development of the DECIMAL SYSTEM • Calculation of the VOLUME of a CYLINDER and PYRAMID.
ASTRONOMY • Knowledge of STARS and their MOVEMENT • Knowledge of the SOLAR CYCLE. • Division of the YEAR into 12 MONTHS of 30 DAYS (with the addition of 5 DAYS to make 365 days.) • ARCHITECTURE • Construction of HUGE PYRAMIDS • Building of many PALACES and TEMPLES