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Week 6. CHAPTER 7 Tracey and Morrow Information/Cognitive Processing Perspectives Continued (1980s) Pages 160-166.

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Week 6

Week 6

CHAPTER 7 Tracey and Morrow

Information/Cognitive Processing Perspectives Continued (1980s)

Pages 160-166

Morrow, L. M., & Tracey, D. H. (2006). Lenses on Reading: An Introduction to Theories and Models. New York, N.Y.: The Guilford Press.Content in this section directly cited from Lenses on Reading unless otherwise noted

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Information cognitive processing perspectives continued 1980s

Information/Cognitive Processing Perspectives Continued(1980s)

Chapter 7

Tracey and Morrow

Morrow, L. M., & Tracey, D. H. (2006). Lenses on Reading: An Introduction to Theories and Models. New York, N.Y.: The Guilford Press.Content in this section directly cited from Lenses on Reading unless otherwise noted

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Interactive compensatory model

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Interactive and compensatory
Interactiveand Compensatory

  • Stanovich published an article entitled:

    • “Toward an Interactive-Compensatory Model of Individual Differences in the Development of Reading Fluency” (1980)

    • In the article, he began by reviewing the concepts of “bottom-up”, “top-down” and interactive models of the reading process

  • The Interactive Model (Rumelhart,1977), discussed in Chapter 7, was the first model of reading to propose a nonlinear, simultaneous view of information processing

  • In addition to summarizing the key points of “bottom-up”, “top down” and interactive models of reading, Stanovichextended Rumelhart’s model…

    • He added the idea that, not only are text processors interactive and nonlinear, but they are also compensatory

      • i.e., if one processor is not working well, or has insufficient data, the other processors compensate for it

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Interactive compensatory model neither bottom nor top
Interactive-Compensatory Model-Neither Bottom Nor Top

“Bottom-Up” Models

  • First: letters are identified

  • Second: sounds are attached to them

  • Third: the word meaning is added

  • Fourth: after all the words are processed-the sentence's meaning is understood

“Top Down” Models

  • Built on the assumption that the reading process is primarily driven by what is in the reader's head rather than by what is on the printed page

  • "Top-down" models of reading emphasize the importance of a reader's background knowledge during the reading process

  • This background knowledge includes information from many sources:

    • Knowledge of…

      • The topic

      • Text structure

      • Sentence structure

      • Word meanings (vocabulary)

  • The Interactive-Compensatory Model is an extended example of the Interactive Model (Chapter 7)

  • It is extended to include the idea that not only are text processors interactive and non-linear, they are also compensatory!

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Top down models
Top-Down Models

  • Knowledge about the topic

  • Knowledge of text structure

  • Knowledge of sentence structure

  • Knowledge of word meanings

  • According to "top-down" models, readers use all four sources of information to make predictions and hypotheses about upcoming text

  • When the upcoming text is consistent with a reader's hypotheses and predictions:

    • The reading process progresses rapidly and smoothly, with the reader sampling the text and confirming his or her hypotheses and predictions

  • However, when the upcoming text is inconsistent with the reader's expectations:

    • Reading is slowed

    • The reader will attend more closely to the actual printed text

  • The term "top-down" is derived from this heavy reliance on the reader (rather than the text) during the reading process

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Interactive compensatory model conclusions
Interactive-Compensatory Model CONCLUSIONS

  • This model suggests that there are four primary processors used during reading:

    • Orthographic Processor: Handles Visual Input

    • Syntactic Processor: Handles Word Order Within Sentences

    • Lexical Processor: Handles Word Meanings

    • Semantic Processor: Responsible for Overall Message Construction

  • Additionally, this model suggests that these processors are interactive, nonlinear, and compensatory

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In the classroom what is a flexible reader
In The ClassroomWhat is a Flexible Reader?

  • One classroom application related to this model is teaching children to be flexible readers

    • Flexible readers know that there are many ways to figure out words and word meanings when reading

  • Sometimes….

    • Words can be identified immediately because they are in the reader’s sight vocabulary

    • Word families can be used to help identify a word or a word can be sounded out based on its phonetic clues

    • A reader can figure out the meaning of an unknown word because he or she understands the meaning of a sentence

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In the classroom conclusions
In the ClassroomConclusions


Teaching children how to use context clueswhen reading is a popular and effective instructional activity associated with this model

When teachers provide instruction on how to be a flexible reader, they are providing instruction consistent with the Interactive-Compensatory Model

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Orthographic processing model

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Orthographic processing perspective
Orthographic Processing Perspective

  • Stanovich published the Interactive-Compensatory Model

  • Erhi published an article that articulated the ways in which the brain processes orthographic information (visual, printed text) during the reading process

    • Ehri identified the way in which orthographic forms (words) are captured in memory

    • "This written unit is thought to be incorporated not as a rotely memorized geometric figure but rather as a sequence of letters bearing systematic relationships to phonological properties of the word” (p. 313)

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Orthographic processing perspective1
Orthographic Processing Perspective

  • Ehri(1992) explained the process through which readers see a printed word and connect it to its pronunciation stored in memory

  • She called a key early step in this process "recoding“

    • During recoding, printed letters are connected to their pronunciations through the use of letter-sound rules

    • More familiar terms for Ehri's "recoding" are "decoding" and "sounding out"

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Orthographic processing perspective2
Orthographic Processing Perspective

More recently, Ehri(2000) has been stressing the importance of graphophonemic awareness

"Graphophonemic awareness" refers to the reader's ability to connect printed text (graphemes) to sounds (phonemes)

In lay language, graphophonemic awareness is the knowledge that underlies decoding skill

Ehri emphasizes that graphophonemic awarenessis critically important to successful early reading

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Verbal efficiency theory

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Verbal efficiency theory1
Verbal Efficiency Theory

  • Perfetti(1985) wrote an influential book entitled Reading Ability

    • Perfetti outlined a theory of the reading process that attempted to explain individual differences in reading ability

      • A PDF copy of this book is located in Session 8 Resource Folder for future reference

    • Perfetti’s work is entitled the Verbal Efficiency Theory

  • The Verbal Efficiency Theory was built on three assumptions (Kuhara-Kojima, Hatano, Saito, & Haebara, 1996)

    • The three assumptionsconcern automaticity of word recognition and decoding skills as the major source of variations in vocalization latencies

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Verbal efficiency theory2
Verbal Efficiency Theory

Assumption #1: One's reading of printed text is related to one's internal hearing

  • The first, and most general, assumption is that word recognition skills during reading are related to speech access

    • This means that, as the reader reads, the sound of the word (the phonological code) is activated as the word is read(lexical access)

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Verbal efficiency theory3
Verbal Efficiency Theory

Assumption #2:”…vocalization latencies to single printed words represent the extent of automaticity of word recognition" (Kuhara-Kojima et al., 1996, p. 158)

  • The amount of time it takes the reader to read an isolated word aloud is indicative of how well the reader knows the word

    • The amount of time it takes to read an isolated word aloud is known as vocalization latency

    • How quickly the reader can identify a printed word is also known as word recognition automaticity

  • Perfetti and his colleagues have demonstrated that more skilled comprehenders have faster automatic word recognition than less skilled comprehenders(Hogaboam & Perfetti, 1978)

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Verbal efficiency theory4
Verbal Efficiency Theory

Assumption #3:a reader's decoding skill is the major source of variation in his or her vocalization latency

  • The Verbal Efficiency Theory suggests that faster word recognition is associated with improved reading because automatic word recognition requires less cognitive energy than decoding, thus freeing up cognitive capacity for comprehension processing (Wolf & Katzir-Cohen, 2001)

  • In simpler terms, how well a reader can decode will determine how quickly he or she can identify words when reading isolated words

    • The reading of isolated nonsense words is often used as a measure of decoding skill since this condition eliminates the readers' ability to use context or whole-word recognition skills for word identification

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Verbal efficiency theory5
Verbal Efficiency Theory

  • Stanovich(1980) has reported that “…the speed of naming pronounceable non-words is one of the tasks that most clearly differentiates good from poor readers"(p. 62)

  • Regarding the importance of Verbal Efficiency Theory:

    • “Assumptions about vocalization latencies as a measure of automaticity of word recognition and about decoding skill as the major source of variations in the latencies have been accepted virtually unanimously in the North American reading research community” (Kuhara-Kojima, et al., 1996 ,p. 161)

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In the classroom verbal efficiency theory
In The ClassroomVerbal Efficiency Theory

  • Verbal Efficiency Theory emphasizes the central role of language ability in the reading experience

  • Classroom activities that acknowledge and reinforce the link between oral language development and reading are consistent with this perspective

  • Activities known to strengthen children's oral language include:

    • Listening to stories read aloud and books on tape

    • Creating language experience charts

    • Buddy reading

    • Engaging in dramatic play and storytelling

    • Cooking activities

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Construction integration model

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Construction integration model1
Construction-Integration Model

A copy of the Construction-Integration Model is located in Session 8 Resource Folder for future reference

  • According to the Construction-Integration Model, when readers read they construct representations, or understandings, of what they have read in their heads

  • The Construction-Integration Model (Kintsch, 1994) objective is to articulate the ways in which:

    • Text representations are constructed when readers read

    • How the cognitive processes that construct them…work!

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Construction integration model2
Construction-Integration Model

  • The Construction-Integration Model suggests that during reading, representationsoccur at several levels:

    • Linguistic level (a representation of the words themselves)

    • Conceptual level (a representation of what the words and sentences mean)

    • Situational level (a representation of the text integrated with the general knowledge in the person's mind)

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Construction integration model3
Construction-Integration Model

  • The model suggests that two primary cognitive processes are used to construct the linguistic-, conceptual, and situational-level representations:

    • The first process is: Construction in which ”…a text base is constructed from the linguistic input as well as from the comprehender's knowledge base"(Kintsch, 1994, p. 953)

    • The second process is: Integration,in which the understanding of the text is integrated into the reader's general knowledge base

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Construction integration model4
Construction-Integration Model

The Construction-Integration Model is consistent with a cognitive processing perspective because of its heavy emphasis on articulating the ways in which the brain is seen as functioning during reading

The model is also consistent with a constructivist perspective on reading (see Chapter 4)

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Phonological core variable difference model

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Dyslexia the reason for the phonological core variable difference model
Dyslexia: The Reason for the Phonological-Core Variable Difference Model

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Previous thoughts on dyslexia diagnosis

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Dyslexia a change in perspective

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Dyslexia the matthew effects

Stanovich’s paper: “Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy” is located in Session 8 Resource Folder as future reference.

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Matthew effects in reading academic consequences

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Phonological core variable difference model matthew effects fan spread
Phonological-Core Variable Difference ModelMATTHEW EFFECTS - FAN-SPREAD

The Matthew Effects have been justly described as "fan-spread effects" because the reading-disabled child's problems are initially specific to the area of phonemic awareness, but then "fan out”…that is, they become more generalized and widespread over time

The concept of Matthew Effects has tremendous implications for the importance of early identification and treatment of children with phonemic awareness problems

Stanovich's early emphasis on the area of phonological deficits as the primary issue characterizing dyslexia would prove to be an important key to future efforts to understand and treat at-risk readers (Shaywitz et al., 2004)

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In the classroom phonemic awareness
In The Classroom“Phonemic Awareness”

Since Stanovich's(1988) identification of phonological deficits as central to reading difficulties in the Phonological-Core Variable Difference Model, the term "phonemic awareness" has gained prominence

Phonemic awareness refers to a child's understanding that words are comprised of individual sounds

Children who acquire this ability are able to hear rhyming words and can segment individual sounds out of words and blend them together again

Phonemic awareness is developed over time and through practice (Juel, 1991)

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In the classroom phonemic awareness1
In The Classroom“Phonemic Awareness”

I’m a B-U-G

  • When children are phonemically aware, they know that a word such as bug is composed of three sounds that can be segmented into the sounds /b/u/g/

  • They also know that the sounds can be blended together again and that the individual sounds make the spoken word “bug”.

  • Phonemic awareness does not involve associating the visual letter symbols with the sounds of the letters

    • It is simply hearing that there are different sounds in words and being able to segment the sounds, say them, and then blend them together

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In the classroom phonemic awareness2
In The Classroom“Phonemic Awareness”

“I’m as SNUG as a BUG in a RUG”

  • There are many ways to strengthen children's phonemic awareness skills

  • Children can:

    • Listen to rhyming books and nursery rhymes

    • Play rhyming games

    • Play linguistic games in which speech sounds are manipulated

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