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1-4. State of the Art & Issues. Reference Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges”, pp. 35-66, National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1995. Areas of the study application domains psychological issues VR technologies evaluation of VR systems.

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1 4 state of the art issues
1-4. State of the Art & Issues
  • Reference
    • Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges”, pp. 35-66, National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1995.
  • Areas of the study
    • application domains
    • psychological issues
    • VR technologies
    • evaluation of VR systems
1 application domains
1. application domains
  • design, manufacturing & marketing
  • medicine, health care
  • hazardous operations
  • training
  • entertainment, military
  • experimental psychology
  • education
  • information visualization
  • tele-communication, tele-travel
2 psychological topics
2. psychological topics
  • human performance characteristics
  • alteration of sensori-motor loops
  • developing the cognitive model
  • cognitive side-effect
3 vr technologies
3. VR technologies
  • Gap between the current technology

the required technology

(exception -- entertainment, tele-operation)

(1) human-machine interface

(2) computer generation of VE

(3) tele-robotics

(4) network

human machine interface
human-machine interface
  • visual channel
  • auditory channel
  • haptic channel
  • motion interface
  • others
  • position tracking
  • video camera
  • microphone
  • others
visual channel
visual channel
  • visual display
    • HMD
    • OHD (off-head display)
  • perceptual effects
    • mis-registration
    • sensori-motor alteration
    • distortion
    • time-delay
    • noise
slide7
research issues
    • ergonomics
    • improvement of resolution and fov
    • wireless
    • integration of visual, auditory, position tracking
    • sun glass-like
    • see-through option
    • exploiting foveal and peripheral vision
auditory channel
auditory channel
  • Current hardware is adequate.
  • Research issues
    • perceptual issues
      • similar to the visual channel
      • use for sensory substitution (for visual, haptic)
    • auditory scene analysis
    • hear-through display
position tracking and mapping
position tracking and mapping
  • tracking = finding a point

mapping = finding a 3D surface

(e.g., environmental mapping)

  • tracking mechanisms
    • mechanical linkage
    • magnetic
    • optical
    • acoustic
    • intertial
slide10
eye tracking
  • research issues
    • tracking
    • mapping
haptic channel
haptic channel
  • force, pressure, tactile feedback
  • unique characteristics
    • Haptic interface requires manipulation and sensing
  • mechanism
    • body-based -- glove, exoskeleton
    • ground-based -- joystick
slide12
Research issues
    • haptic science = study on the human haptics

(bio-mechanical, psychophysical, cognitive)

    • tool-hand system (which takes its metaphor from real tools.)
    • creating the haptic illusion
    • the interaction effects of haptic and vision
    • texture, temperature devices
motion interface
motion interface
  • motion
    • whole-body motion
      • passive -- e.g., motion platform
      • active -- e.g., locomotion
    • part-body motion
      • passive
      • active
slide14
motion cues
    • vestibular system -- inertial
    • motor
    • visual
    • auditory
    • proprioceptive / kinesthetic -- muscle
    • tactile
slide15
motion interface
    • inertial system
      • moves the body (e.g., treadmill, motion platform)
    • non-inertial system
      • simulates motion
other types of interfaces
other types of interfaces
  • olfactory (smell)
  • gustatory (taste)
  • heat, wind, humidity
  • speech
  • direct physiological sensing and control
vr technologies
VR technologies

(1) human-machine interface

(2) computer generation of VE

(3) tele-robotics

(4) network

conceptual model of vr
Conceptual Model of VR

Virtual environment

Human

H-sensor

perception

cognition

motion control

H-effector

V-sensor

V-effector

sensing

action

P-effector

L-effector

sensing

output device

input device

action

P-sensor

L-sensor

joystick

mouse

tracker

TV camera

microphone

2D - selector

pick

locator

etc.

3D - navigator

manipulator

etc.

V-human

V-vehicle

V-bike

V-hand

etc.

2 generation of virtual environments
(2) generation of virtual environments
  • the core issue
  • general-purpose VR system?
  • trade-off between realism and interactivity
  • requirements
    • frame rate
    • response time
    • scene quality
slide20
hardware
  • interaction and navigation
  • VE management
    • simulation
    • rendering
  • modeling
  • autonomous agent
  • hypermedia interaction
  • OS
ve management simulation
VE management - simulation
  • Task : simulating everyday world
  • Traditional simulation methods do not work.

(requires pre-processing)

  • Need : “meta-modeling”
ve management rendering
VE management - rendering
  • Issue : load balancing
    • 1. partitioning VE
    • 2. LOD
  • Much work has been done on static scene.
  • Research issues
    • 1. dynamic scene
    • 2. parallel rendering
slide23
OS
  • real-time, multi-modal requirements
  • very high-resolution time slicing
  • atomic, transparent distribution of tasks
  • large number of light-weighted processors, communicating by means of shared memory
  • support for time-critical computing:
    • negotiated, graceful degradation
    • guaranteed frame rate, lag time
vr technologies1
VR technologies

(1) human-machine interface

(2) computer generation of VE

(3) tele-robotics

(4) network

3 tele robotics
(3) Tele-robotics
  • tele-robotics and VR
  • hardware
  • time-delay problem
  • distributed tele-robots
4 network
(4) Network
  • The future is here!
  • applications
    • distance learning
    • group entertainment
    • distributed training
    • distributed design
  • current
  • future
  • What is needed
1 4 state of the art issues1
1-4. State of the Art & Issues
  • Reference
    • Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges”, pp. 35-66, National Research Council, National Academic Press, 1995.
  • Areas of the study
    • application domains
    • psychological issues
    • VR technologies
    • evaluation of VR systems
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