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Dictators In World War 2. By: Radvile , Lauren & Nicole. Stalin’s Russia. By: Radvile. Stalin was born in 1879 He came from a poor background; his father was a cobbler and his mother was a peasant H is real surname was Djugasvili

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dictators in world war 2

Dictators In World War 2

By: Radvile , Lauren &

Nicole

stalin s russia

Stalin’s Russia

By: Radvile

slide3

Stalin was born in 1879

  • He came from a poor background; his father was a cobbler and his mother was a peasant
  • His real surname was Djugasvili
  • He did well at school and won a scholarship to go to a seminary where priests were trained
  • It was at this seminary that Stalin turned to Marxism
  • He became a follower of Lenin and went to secret meetings and distributed leaflets
  • Between 1902 and 1913 he was arrested 8 times and exiled to Siberia. He escaped 7 times!
slide4

In prison he adopted the name Stalin which translated as "Man of Steel". He felt that it would be good for his image.

  • He was a very good organiser and the part he played in the November 1917 Revolution was probably small. But the skills he gained while helping to organise the Bolshevik Party were to prove invaluable.
  • After 1917, he was rewarded with a number of seemingly unimportant party positions which nobody else wanted. But they gave Stalin a perfect insight into who could be trusted to support him and who could not..
  • Stalin was seen as dull by the intellectual elite of the Bolshevik Party. They all made a fatal mistake in assuming that he was stupid.
slide5

When Stalin became the undisputed leader of Russia in 1929, he realised that Russia was far behind the west and that she would have to modernise her economy very quickly if she was to survive. Also a strong economy would lead to a strong military if Russia was going to survive threats from external forces. A modernised Russia would also provide the farmers with the machinery they needed if they were going to modernise their farms - such as tractors.

the five years plans
The Five Years Plans:
  • Stalin introduced the Five Year Plans. This brought all industry under state control and all industrial development was planned by the state. The state would decide what would be produced, how much would be produced and where it should be produced. An organisation called Gosplan was created to plan all this out.
  • The first five year plan was from 1928 to 1932.
  • The second five year plan was from 1933 to 1937.
  • The third five year plan was from 1938 to 1941 when the war interrupted it.
slide7

The second five year plan continued to emphasise heavy industries but there was also a commitment to communication systems such as railways and new industries such as the chemical industry.

  • The third five year plan put an emphasis on weapons production (which required an input from heavy industries) as war did seem to be approaching.
slide8

Stalin was known as "Uncle Joe" and they were willing to suffer a few years of hardship if they were going to get to the promised land of a better society.

  • People were encouraged to work hard by propaganda which bombarded the workers in all directions. This played on the belief that if most did it, the rest would follow on as they did not want to be seen as different.
  • Rewards were given to the best workers. Groups of workers were encouraged to compete against each other. The most famous worker was Alexei Stakhanov. He was said to have mined 102 tons of coal in one shift. This was fourteen times the amount expected from one person.
prison
Prison:
  • A lot of hard physical labour was done by prisoners. It did not matter if they died - only that the task was completed. The fact that these people were in prison, was enough for the government to use them as it saw fit.
  • For all the problems and hardship caused by the Five Year Plans, by 1941, Stalin had transformed Russia into a world class industrial power. This was to be vital for Russia as the war was about to test her to the extreme.
slide10

Propaganda gave the impression of a contended and loyal population. Stalin controlled all of the communist parties in Europe and they also said how great things were in the USSR.

  • His secret police was NKVD, and kept a close eye on the people. Anybody, guilty or innocent, could be arrested at anytime, anywhere.
  • People who were suspected of oppositinghis policies were executed or sent to vast prison camps Gulags.
slide13

unemployment, inflation and strikes where high.

  • Country heavily in debt.
  • Italian governments were weak.
slide16

Work for the unemployed

  • To crush Communism and crime
  • To restore the Roman Empire
march on rome
MARCH ON ROME
  • To seize power

… Successful

  • He became Prime Minister
acerbo law
ACERBO LAW

Party with the most seats got into government so you didn’t need a majority

slide21

Eliminated all opposition.

  • Opponents were banned from parliament or from publishing newspapers.
slide22

Schools taught children to be loyal to ‘Il Duce’

  • From the age of eight children had to belong to the Balila, the fascist youth movement.
overseas empire
Overseas empire

1935 he invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

slide24

Mussolini decided the easiest way to get support of the Italian people was to form alliance with the Catholic Church.. With the Lateran Treaty which established an independent Vatican state.

slide25

He formed an alliance with Hitler in 1936 with the Rome Berlin Axis.

which extended to..

  • Rome Berlin Tokyo Axis 1940

(Pact of Steel)

slide27

He created millions of low-paid jobs.

  • Introduced huge programmes of public works.
slide28

He created millions of low-paid jobs.

  • Introduced huge programmes of public works.
slide30

Many People were unhappy with the weimar politicians (1919-1933) For accepting the humiliating treaty of versailles.

  • The Politicians Nickname Was , The November Criminals.
  • German Economy Was In A State Of Depression After World War 1.
results of depression
Results of depression..
  • Unemployment was high.
  • Inflation was high.
  • Reparation payments crippled the economy £6.6B, Today(£700B)
wall street crash 1929
Wall street crash 1929.
  • The Depression Deepened After The Wall Street Crash 1929.
  • Depression continued into the 1930’s.
  • Weimar republicans unable to deal with the serious problems, one such alternative group was the nazi party, Leader, Aldolf Hitler.
what techniques he used for support
What techniques he used for support..
  • He Used, Propaganda, Censorship & Intimidation, By The Brownshirts & Gestapo To Gain Support & Stamp Out Opposition.
  • Hitler Was Anti-Communist.
november 1932
November 1932,
  • The Nazi Party Had Won 196 Seats, Compared To 1928, Where They Had Only Won 12 Seats.
  • He was invited by president Hindenburg to form a government and became a chancellor of Germany.
slide35

Hitler Blamed The Communist Party For Burning Down The Reichstag Building, Which Burned Down February 1933, He Had 4000 Communists Arrested.

slide36

The Only People Hitler Feared Were Members Of His Own Brownshirts,

  • Ernest Rohm, The Leader Of The SA, (Hitler's Army) Along With Other Leading SA Officers Were Killed By Hitler's SS (his elite bodyguard) On What Became Known As , ‘’The Night Of Long Knives’’.
august 1934
August 1934
  • Hitler Became President And Chancellor.
  • He Became Known As Der Führer. Of The ‘’Third Reich’’.
  • Young People Were Instructed To Be Loyal To Germany & The Führer, All Children Had To Join The Hitler Youth Movement.
slide38

He Formed An Alliance With Mussolini In 1936, With The Rome Berlin Axis Which Eventually Extended To The Rome Berlin Tokyo Axis 1940.

famous nazis
Famous Nazis..
  • Josef Goebbels, Propaganda Minister.
  • Herman Goering, Head Of Airforce.
  • Heinrich Himmler, SS Commander.
slide40

Hitler Had A Great Hatred For The Jews, Which Was Mentioned In His Book, Mein Kampf ‘’My Struggle’’.

nuremberg laws
Nuremberg laws
  • The Jews lost their citizenship rights. They were forbidden to marry a German and they had to wear a special star of David.
  • Many Fled To Germany , e.g.. Albert Einstein.
the final solution
The Final Solution ! ! ! !
  • Hitler Wanted TOTAL Elimination Of The Jews!! After world war 2 it was found that 6 million Jews had been exterminated at concentration camps e.g. Auschwitz and Dachau.
  • Gypsies, homosexuals and handicapped etc suffered at concentration camps.
hitler s foreign policy
Hitler’s Foreign policy!
  • He wanted to:
  • To make Germany a great power again.
  • To gain revenge for the humiliating treaty of Versailles.
  • To unite all German speaking people under one leader. To expand eastwards and enslave the Jews and the communists and create lebensraum.