So far, we have discussed ways to talk about music : Sound Pitch Dynamics Tone Color Rhythm Performing Media. What is left for us to consider is:. Music Notation Melody Harmony Key Musical Texture Form. In Review.
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What is left for us to consider is:
From Brahms to Bernstein MU-104 O&H
Notation is the system of writing music so that specific rhythms and pitches can be communicated.
Cancels out the operation of a flat or sharp or represents a key modulation
Raises a pitch by a pitch ½ step
Lowers pitch by a pitch ½ stepMusical Notation - Pitch
musical score - a written form of a musical composition; parts for different instruments appear on separate staves on large pagesMusical Notation - Score
Melodies often consist of one or more musical phrases, motifs, and are usually repeated throughout a song or piece in various forms.
Melody can best be understood as the horizontal expression of sound and results where there are interacting patterns of changing events occurring in time either rhythmically or harmonically expressed.What is Melody?
Harmony can best be understood as the vertical expression of the sonic event as it occurs within a continuum of time and more specifically refers to the way chords are constructed and how they follow each other.
A chord is a combination of three or more tones sounded at once.
Consonance refers to a tone combination that is stable.
Dissonance refers to a tone combination that is unstable.
A Dissonance has resolution when it resolves to a consonance.
A triad is the simplest of chords and consists of three tones.What is Harmony?
Primary triads of a diatonic key (major or minor) include the tonic, subdominant, and dominant degree chords, otherwise symbolized: I, IV, and V respectively.Harmony
Minor triads contain a minor third, and perfect fifth
Diminished triads contain a minor third, and diminished fifth
Augmented triads contain a major third, and augmented fifthHarmony - Triads
A cadence (Latin cadentia, "a falling") is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase section, or piece of music. Cadences give phrases a distinctive ending, that can, for example, indicate to the listener whether the piece is to be continued or concluded.Harmony - Cadences
In music, an arpeggio is a broken chord where the notes are played or sung in succession rather than simultaneously. The word, like many other musical terms, originates from Italian, in which it means "in the manner of the harp."
Prelude No. 4 is one of the most famous pieces Chopin wrote. It was played at his funeral and is relatively easy, with a slow melody in the right hand and repeated block chords in the left hand.
Frederic ChopinHarmony – Music Example
Prelude in E Minor for Piano,
Op. 28,No. 4 (1839)
The key identifies the tonic triad the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section.
The chromatic scale is a musical scalewith twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart.
The term chromatic derives from the Greek word chroma, meaning color. Chromatic notes are traditionally understood as harmonically inessential embellishments, shadings, or inflections of diatonic notes.Key Chromatic Scale
Modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. This may or may not be accompanied by a change in key signature . Modulations articulate or create the structure or form of many pieces, as well as add interest. In other words, “a modulation is like a shift in gravity.” This is not to be confused with Key Change even though these terms are sometimes used synonymously. A Key Change requires a change of key. A modulation can work by use of accidentals in temporary shifts of key.Key Modulation
The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of musical composition it is extremely important. The triad formed on the tonic note, the tonic chord, is thus the most important chord. More generally, the tonic is the pitch upon which all other pitches of a piece are hierarchically referenced. The tonic is often confused with the root, which is the reference note of a chord, rather than that of the scale.Key - Tonic
Monophony is the simplest of textures, consisting of melody without accompanying harmony or in other words, music in which all the notes are sung are in unison is called monophonic. This can be doubled at the octave (ex. When men and women sing the same melody together.
Homophony is a texture in which two or more parts move together in harmony, the relationship between them creating chords.
Polyphony is a texture consisting of two or more independent melodic voicesMusical Texture
There is some overlap between musical form and musical genre. The latter term is more likely to be used when referring to particular styles of music (such as classical music or rock music) as determined by things such as harmonic language, typical rhythms, types of musical instrument used, and geographical origin.
Musical repetition appeals to the pleasure we get in recognizing andremembering something.
Musical Form- CONTRAST
In the variation of a musical idea, some of its features will be retained while others are changed.
Binary form is a way of structuring a piece of music in two related sections, both of which are usually repeated. Binary is also a structure used to choreograph dance.
ABMusical Form- BINARY FORM
Two Part (Binary) A A B B
Sextuple meter 2/4, Eb major
2 clarinets, two french horns, 1st violins, 2nd violins, cellos, bassesMusical Example: Two part (Binary form) AB
The very brief contra dance in duple meter and in E-flat major is in the two-part binary form and is outlined AA BB. Because each part is repeated. A and B are exactly 8 bars each.
The first violins present the melody, while the other strings, clarinets and French horns provide mostly a staccato accompaniment.
Part A ends up with an incomplete cadence, and part B ends conclusively with a complete cadence.
Part a consists of a soft lilting melodic phrase beginning with the repeated rhythm short-long, short-long.
In contrast, part B begins energetically, with a rapid upward unaccompanied scale that leads to three loud repeated chords. A quieter repetition of the rapid upward scale introduces a soft, expectant sustained chord.
Part B concludes with an a new lilting phrase also based on the repeated rhythm short-long, short-long.Musical Example: Two part (Binary form) AB
Ternary form is a structuring mechanism of a piece of music. Along with several other musical forms, ternary form can also be applied to dance choreography. Ternary form is a three-part structure, often notated A-B-A. The first and third parts (A) are musically identical, or very nearly so, while the second part (B) contrasts sharply with it.
ABAMusical Form- TERNARY FORM
Dance of the Reed Pipes from Nutcracker Suite
FORM - A B A1
Moderato assai (very moderate)
duple meter D Major
3 flutes, 2 oboes, English horn, 2 clarinets, bass clarinet, 2 bassoons, 4 French Horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba, timpani, cymbals, violins, violas, cellos, double bassesMusical Example of 3 part Ternary form
a. Low pizzicato strings, p, introduce
b. 3 flutes, staccato melody in major pizzicato strings accompany. Melody repeated
B section –
a. 3 flutes, staccato melody in major, strings accompany. Melody repeated. CadenceMusical Example of 3 part Ternary form