CLAUSEPHRASEPart of Speech BY: Fitri Hidayati 20110540058
Independent Clause Also called main clause (induk kalimat) is a series of words containing a subject and predicate which has had a perfect understanding (obviously), and can stand alone, that is not dependent on another clause.
Example : • We study English. • English is an international language. • She has finished working.
Dependent Clause Also called subordinate clause (anak kalimat), dependent clause is a series of words containing a subject and predicate but do not yet have a perfect understanding, and can not stand alone, meaning that depending on the pads of other words (Main Clause).
Example : • I will go if you go. • She won't come unless you invite her. • I enjoy my job although I work long hours.
Based on the function (use) Clauses are classified into 3 types, • Noun Clause • Adjective Clause • Adverbial Clause
What is a noun clause? • Noun clause is a clause that is use as a substitute for noun or functioning as a noun. • Examples : • I know where he lives. s v o (noun clause) • Dani doesn’t know if he is married. s v o (noun clause)
Exercise 1. noun clause that begin with a question word • a: Where does Jim go to school? b: I don’t know where Jim goes to school. • a: Why is Maria laughing? b: I don’t know. Does anybody know _____________________? • a: How much does a new Honda cost? b: Peter can tell you ________________________. • a: How long do bird lives? b: I don’t know ______________________. • a: Where did Emily buy her computer? b: I don’t know ______________________ her computer.
Exercise 2. noun clauses with WHO, WHAT, WHOSE + BE • a: Who is that woman? b: I don’t know who that woman is. • a: What is a crow? b: I don’t know _______________. • a: Whose car is that? b: I don’t know ______________. • a: Who is in the doctor’s office? b: I don’t know _______________. • a: What’s at the end of a rainbow? b: What did you say, Susie? a: I want to know ________________.
What is an Adjective clause? • An adjective clause is clauses that are used or functioning as an adjective a noun or pronoun to explain the situation. Example : • I have read the book (that) you just mentioned.Main Clause: I have read the book.Subordinate Clause: (that) you just mentioned. • I met a man who lives in Chicago.Main Clause: I met a man.Subordinate Clause: (who) lives in Chicago.
Exercise 1. Adjective clauses with WHO and WHOM • a. Do you know the people? b. They live in the white house. Do you know the people who live in the white house? • a. The police officer was friendly. b. She gave me directions. • a. The woman gave me some information. b. I called her. • a. The people were very nice. b. I met them at the party last night. • a. The man talked a lot. b. I met him on the plane. • a. The people have three cars. b. They live next to me.
Exercise 2. written: adjective clause • My friend told me about a man who . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • I returned the book that . . . . . . . . . . . . . • Do you know the woman that . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? • I have a friend whose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • The apple tree is producing fruit that . . . . . . . . . . . • The person who . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What is an Adverbial clause? An adverbial clause is a clause that has an adverb-like function in modifying another clause. Example : • Linda needs the pen which is expensive. main clause : Linda needs the pen. subordinate clause : which is expensive.
what is main clause? Definition : A main clause is a clause thatmay stand alone as a complete sentence, andexpresses the focal predication when occurring in a complex sentence.
What is coordinate clause? Definition: A coordinate clause is a clause belonging to a series of two or more clauses whichare not syntactically dependent one on another, andare joined by means of • a coordinating conjunction • a connective, or • parataxis. Examples : • I will go home and he will go to work. • John likes hamburgers, but Mary prefers hot dogs. • We might go to Seattle, or we might go to California.
What is an equative clause? Definition An equative clause is a clause which describes a feature of its subject. It contains a subject complement and, typically, a copula. Examples : • He is a doctor. • She is the queen.
What is an existential clause? Definition: An existential clause is a clause, having a distinctive grammatical structure, which expresses the real or imagined existence of an entity. • Discussion An existential clause often introduces an entity into a discourse. • Example : The clause construction “there + verb [typically be] + noun phrase” forms an existential clause, as in: • There was a man.
What is a nominal clause? • Definition A nominal clause is a subordinate clause that functions as a noun phrase. • Examples : • I know that he is here. • From where I stood, I saw the horse. • Kind Here is a kind of nominal clause: What is a complement clause?
what is a reference clause? • Definition: Here are two senses of a reference clause: • A reference clause is a clause with an argument that, in a marking clause elsewhere in the sentence, is signaled as being co referential or not to the argument of the marking clause. • In a language having a switch reference system, a reference clause is a clause with an argument, which is typically the subject.
What is a relative clause? • Definition: A relative clause is a clause which describes the referent of a headnoun or pronoun.It often restricts the reference of the head noun or pronoun. • Discussion A relative clause is not necessarily a constituent of the noun phrase containing the head noun it modifies. • Example: • The plumber arrived who we had called earlier.(Who we had called earlier has been extra posed from its normal position after plumber and is not a member of the noun phrase containing plumber.) • The man who went passengers leaving on Flight 738
What is subordinate clause? Definition: A subordinate clause is a clause that is embedded as a constituent of a matrix sentence and that functions like a noun, adjective, or adverb in the resultant complex sentence.
What is a final clause? Definition A final clause is the last clause in a clause chain. It is distinguished from medial clauses by a difference in verb morphology.
PHRASE A phrase is a syntactic structure that consists of more than one wordbut lacks the subject-predicateorganization of a clause. Example: She bought some spinach when she went to the corner store. Lightning flashed brightly in the night sky. They heard high pitched cries in the middle of the night.
Adpositional phrase • Definition An adpositional phrase is a linguisticsterm defining a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases and postpositional phrases. Adpositional phrases contain an adposition in the head position and usually a complement such as a noun phrase. Language syntax treats adpositional phrases as units that act as complements or adjuncts.
Here are 2 kinds of adpositional phrases : Prepositional phrase A prepositional phrase is an adpositional phrase in which a prepositionis the head. The preposition precedes its complement. The phrase is an exocentric construction that functions as an adjectival or adverbial modifier. The complement to the preposition is typically one of the following: • Noun • Noun phrase • Pronoun Example : • on the bus • to town • on the other hand Postpositional phrase A postpositional phrase is an adpositional phrase in which a postposition is the head. The postposition follows its complement. The phrase is an exocentric construction that functions as an adjectival or adverbial modifier. The complement to the postposition is typically one of the following: • Noun • Noun phrase • Pronoun Example : • to the store • from the house • with chopsticks
Exercise. For the following sentences, write parentheses around all prepositional phrase. • Jim earned his living in a factory. • He looked at the girl. • John lost his girl to his best friend. • Sally enjoys listening to the radio. • In his eyes was a look of love. • She walked slowly up the stairs. • Jimmy came to the game with me. • The funny clown fell down the stairs. • Ron was running for his life. • I have a present for you.
Noun phrase • Definition Noun phrase is a phrase that is used / serves as a noun (noun). Example: • Ali went to the store for some books. • My new car near the tree is old enough. • The desk in this room is small.
Verb phrase Verb phrase, is phrases which headword its verb form, which is placed at the end of the phrase. Preceded by the auxiliary verb phrase. Example: • am typing. • has passed • will see. • will have graduated. The forms of verbphrases, among others: • Be + verb-ing/verb3 • Has/have/had + verb3 • Has/have/had + been + verb-ing/verb3 • Modal + verb1 • Modal + be + verb-ing/verb3 • Modal + have + verb3 • Modal + have + been +verb-ing/verb.
Adjective phrase Adjective phrase is a phrase that is used / functioning as an adjective, given the nature of the noun or pronoun. Example: • Books in black and red were the clerk's delight. • The girl with long hair is my friend.
Adverbial phrase Adverbial phrase is a phrase that is used / function as an adverb, which describes a verb. Example: • Henry fishes in the big lake. • He put the money into his pocket. Phrase adverbial can also be used to express (express) some relationships, such as expressing relationships of time (expressing a relation of time), place (where), manner (how), degree (level / degree), cause (cause and effect), purpose ( purpose / intent), condition (condition), or a concession or contrast (opposition).
Pronominal phrase Definition A pronominal is a phrase that functions as a pronoun. Note: The term pronominal is also used as an adjectiveto mean "of, constituting, or resembling a pronoun. Example : • That’s not the one I wanted
Invinitive phrase Invinitive phrase is s a phrase that contains the infinitive and infinitive phrases can be used / serves as a Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Example: • To learn English, you must practice everyday. • He is good man for you to know. • He has been warned not to do that again.
Gerund phrase Gerund phrase is a phrase that contains a gerund, and usually only serves as a Noun. Example: • Reading books enlarge one's horizons. • Playing with guns is dangerous. • Taking a long walk every day is good exercise. • Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary. • The broadcasting by that station comes from the top of a skyscraper.
Appositive phrase Appositive phrase is a group of words that serve to give additional information to the subject or object. Appositive Phrases can be a noun, adjective, adverb, or prepositional phrases. Example: • Noun: He had asked Mr. Wilson, a prominent lawyer, to represent him in court. • Adjective: The professor, unaware that many of his students were asleep, went right on lecturing. • Adverb: The gentleman over there by the door is our accountant. • Prepositional phrase: Mr. Harris, in a hurry to get home, a took a taxi from the airport.
Principal Phrase Principal phrase is a phrase containing a participle which usually serves as an adjective. Example: • Not knowing anyone in town he felt very lonesome. • Having finished his assignment, he went home. • Having lost all my money, I went home. • Student arriving late will not be permitted to enter the lecture hall. (Arriving late menjelaskan student.) • We heard the children crying.
PART OF SPEECH One of a group of traditional classifications of words according to their functions in context, including the noun, pronoun, verb, adjective, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection, and sometimes the article.
EIGHT PART OF SPEECH • Nouns • Verbs • Pronouns • Adjectives • Adverbs • Prepositions • Conjuctions • Interjections
NOUNS Nouns are the names of person,things or place.The use of the noun can be the subject of the sentences,object of verb nd object of prepositions. example : • The names of person • Adam malik • KH.Abdurrahman Wahid
Exercise 1. plural nouns • Chicago has busy street and highway. streets highways • Box have six side. • Big city have many problem. • Lamb are the offspring of sheep. • Parent support their child. • Indonesia has several active vulcano.
VERBS Verb are words that express an action,event or state. Kinds of verb • Actions verb express mental or physical actions • Linking verb make statement by connecting the subject and predicate in a sentence. Example : • I am student • Her daughter becomes a docter. • Dina appears clever and wise.
PRONOUNS The pronoun is a word used in place of one or more noun. It may stand for a person,place,thing or idea. • Personal pronouns : I, me, mine, you, your, yours, he, him, his, she, her, hers, etc. • Demonstrative ptonouns : that,this,these,those • Interrogative pronouns : who,what,which,when,where,whom,whose,why • Indifinite pronouns : anybody, anything,everything,someone, something.
Example: • This is my car. • We build a house ourselves. • The girl whom I met yesterday had left foe Jakarta. • She didn’t say anything.
Exercise 1. personal pronouns • I have a grammar book. It is black. • Tom borrowed my books. ___ returned ____ yesterday. • Susan is wearing some new earrings. ___ look good on ___. • The apples were rotten, so the children didn’t eat ____ even though ____ were really hungry. • Do bees sleep at night? Or do _____ work in the hive all night long? You never see ____ after dark. What do ____ do after night falls?
ADJECTIVES Adjective are words that are use to describe, identify or quantify a noun or a pronoun. Example: • Knives are sharp. • Crocodiles have big teeth.
Exercise 1. using nouns as adjectives • This book is about grammar. It’s a grammar book. • My garden has vegetables. It is a _____________. • The soup has beans. It is ________________. • We made plans for our vacation. We made _____________. • Flags fly from poles. Many government buildings have ___________. • The villages are in the mountains. The are _____________.
ADVERBS Adverb are words that are used to describe verbs, adjective or adverbs. Type of Adverbs can be divided into six kinds : • Adverbs of Manner : Beautifully, calmly, carefully,neatly etc • Adverbs of Place and Direction : away, north,east,in solo etc • Adverbs of Time : ago,last week,today etc • Adverbs of Frequency :always,never,rarely,etc • Adverbd of Degree : indeed, in fact,slightly etc • Adverbs of Modality : likely, maybe,probably etc
Example: • Speak slowly,please • I will there tomorrow • Rini is always busy on Sunday • Lulu is often absent from school • Your house is very expensive • Maybe I should meet her now
PREPOSITIONS Preposition are words that are used with a noun or pronoun that are placed in front of them to show a relation between these words with another part of sentence, such as at,on, in,into,for,from,of etc. Example : • the book for him is new • the student are in the classroom
Exercise 1. prepositions of time • We don’t know what will happen ____ the future. • I am a student ___ the present time, but I will graduate next month. • I usually take a walk ____ the morning before I go to work. • Our family enjoys spending time together ___ the evening. • Ms. Walker can’t come to the phone right now. She’s in a meeting ____ the moment. • I moved to this city _____ September.