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Hybrid Programs in Tourism & Hospitality:. A Review of Strengths, Weaknesses and Implementation Issues. Keynote Address to the International Scientific Conference on “Rethinking of Education and Training for Tourism” April 18-20, 2002 – Zagreb, Croatia

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Hybrid Programs in Tourism & Hospitality:


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    1. Hybrid Programs inTourism & Hospitality: A Review of Strengths, Weaknesses and Implementation Issues Keynote Address to the International Scientific Conference on“Rethinking of Education and Training for Tourism”April 18-20, 2002 – Zagreb, Croatia J.R. Brent Ritchie / Simon Hudson / Lorn SheehanUniversity of Calgary, CANADA

    2. Introduction • Tourism & Hospitality industry requires technical skills to service growing number of visitors • Now there is a desirability to hire employees who possess industry skills, basic business training,+ liberal arts education • How to meet this demand? RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    3. Some Examples of Hybrid Programs • Bachelor of Hotel & Restaurant Management (BHRM)– University of Calgary, CANADA • Bachelor of Business (Tourism & Hospitality)– Latrobe University, AUSTRALIA • Tourism Management Program– Brighton University, UNITED KINGDOM RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    4. Growth of Tourism Education • Tourism education has expanded rapidly over the last few decades • This reflects growing recognition of tourism as one of the world’s most significant economic, social & environmental forces • Also reflects one of the major challenges in this industry—recruit, develop & retain employees RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    5. Previous Research • Tourism is multi-faceted &inherently multi-disciplinary • Difficult to classify and designsyllabi that are academicallyrigorous and relevant to thechanging needs of the employment market RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    6. The Response • Australia – partnership with Technical and Further Education (TAFE) Colleges • UK – Credit Accumulation Transfer Schemes (CATS); Accreditation for Prior Learning (APEL); and International School of Tourism and Hotel Management (ISTHM) • Canada – the ‘2+2 model’ Hybrid BHRM Program RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    7. The Calgary Hybrid Program • BHRM has been in place since 1995 • Now includes 19 partner institutions across Canada • This program is a leading innovation of its type • Graduates attract job offers from all over the world • They possess operational skills + the capability of adapting to evolution of the workplace & global markets RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    8. 2 years atDiploma Granting Institution  Diploma in Hotel and Restaurant Management • Technical education in the operation ofhotels and restaurants • Coursework has 2 thrusts: • 1.General Management knowledge • 2.Hotel and Restaurant Management skills Calgary BHRM Program RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    9. 2 years at University of Calgary Critical thinking skills Coursework has 3 major thrusts: 1. General Management knowledge 2. Tourism Management knowledge 3. General Education knowledge  Bachelor of Hotel and Resort Management Degree Calgary BHRM Program Selection of Top two graduatesfrom 19 Diploma Granting Technical Institutions  RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    10. Diploma Granting Institution Courses Diploma Granting Institution Courses 40% General Education 25% Hotel Management 25% Food & Beverage 10% Integrative Tourism Hotel & Restaurant Management Diploma Awarded byDiploma Granting Institution Calgary BHRM Program details Year 1 60% Core Business 20% Hotel Management 20% Food & Beverage Year 2   RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    11. University of Calgary Courses 50% General Education 40% Core Business 10% Integrative Tourism University of Calgary Courses 50% General Education 30% Tourism Business 20% Integrative Tourism  Bachelor of Hotel and Resort ManagementDegree Awarded by University of Calgary Calgary BHRM Program details Year 3 Year 4 RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    12. Year 1 2 x TAFE Subjects 6 x University Subjects  Certificate Year 2 1 x TAFE Subject 7 x University Subjects  8 x University Subjects   Diploma (optional) Alternate for students not wanting to complete diploma Year 3 8 x University Subjects  Degree or Graduate Diploma Year 4 5 x University Subjects  Honours Degree(by invitation from Head of School) LaTrobe University B.Bus (Tourism and Hospitality) NOTE: TAFE is the acronym for Technical and Further Education RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    13. Philosophy of the LaTrobe Multi-Entry, Multi-Exit Program The philosophy that underpins the hospitality and tourism courses at LaTrobe seeks to blend vocational training with a broad management education for the industry’s future leaders. The Bachelor of Business (Tourism and Hospitality) combines the skills needed for hospitality supervision with business management and an understanding of the dynamics of the tourism industry. The Bachelor of Business (Tourism Management) develops the professional skills required in the tourism and travel industries with a thorough background in general business and management. Students can enter these degrees knowing that their career options are open and varied. At the end of their first year of studies, if their interests or vocation needs so determine, they can leave either course with a fully recognized TAFE Certificate in Hospitality or in Tourism, and return later when their career demands higher qualifications. Similarly, they can exit the course at the end of their second year with a nationally recognized Diploma in Hospitality Management or Diploma in Tourism. Students are not locked into an all-or-nothing three-year program. In short, the course is designed to meet the student’s own needs for education when they require it—providing every opportunity to advance their qualifications as their own career develops. LaTrobe University RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    14. Diploma in Tourism or Hospitality Management 2 or 3 years atDiploma Granting Institution(UK or Overseas)* Technical education in the operation ofhotels and restaurants Selection of top graduatesfrom Diploma Granting Institutions Tourism Management  Brighton University BA (Honours) Tourism Management or Hospitality Management *Overseas Partner Institutions: · Treider, Oslo, Norway · Freibourg, Germany · Deventer College, Holland · Bad Honneff, Bonn, Germany RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    15. 1 or 2 years at • University of Brighton • Level 2 • Operational Management expertise • Level 3 • Public Sector Tourism, Planning& Development • Plus specializations  BA (Hons) in: ·Hospitality Management · International Hospitality Management · International Tourism Management · Tourism Management · Travel Management Brighton University BA (Honours) Tourism Management or Hospitality Management RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    16. The Calgary Hybrid Program RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    17. The Calgary Hybrid Program • Up Next: • Special strengths of the Calgary Program • Implementation issues and challenges • The changing world of the past decade & impacts on Tourism Education • Looking to the future RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    18. Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program • Graduates possess a high level of technical skills in hospitality management that make them immediately functional on job entry • Graduates have been exposed to a significant number of courses from a wide range of academic disciplines, thus enhancing their understanding of society as a whole • Graduates have undertaken an in-depth study of the tourism and hospitality sector, its components, how it functions, and how the sector contributes to the well being of society RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    19. Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program • Graduates have learned how business works in general, as well as the roles of each of the functional areas of business, and the skills required in each area • Graduates have learned the fundamentals of tourism and hospitality management at both the firm and destination level. This provides a unique understanding of a Destination Management Organization provides leadership and coordination to tourism and hospitality firms, so as to make the total destination competitive on a sustainable basis RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    20. Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program • Graduates have had the opportunity to interact with, and share ideas with the leading students in their field from all across Canada • Graduates have had the opportunity to form life-long friendships and relationships that will serve them well in their careers, and be of immense value to the Canadian tourism industry RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    21. Special Strengths of the CalgaryHybrid BHRM Program • Graduates have been exposed to some of the leading teachers and researchers in the field of tourism and hospitality studies. In addition to acquiring practical skills, they have been intellectually challenged in a way that goes far beyond that of many programs. • Graduates have access to employment opportunities and management training programs in some of the world’s leading hotel, resort, and tourism attractions. Indeed, most have several offers from which to choose. RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    22. Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program • Tourism is still regarded with skepticism by many in the academic community. Much like women, tourism researchers must continually demonstrate they are better than colleagues in many disciplines in order to merit scholarly recognition. • Basic funding for tourism education in Canada still lags far behind competitors, such as Australia in particular RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    23. Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program • With notable exceptions (e.g. Canadian Pacific, now Fairmount Hotels & Resorts) the tourism sector in Canada is reluctant to provide the enrichment funding that permits good programs to become great ones • Despite scholarship support, the fact that Canada is a vast country still makes the total cost of studying in Calgary much higher than studying at a local university RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    24. Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program • The graduates of the leading partner technical institutes are typically flooded with job offers after completing their technical programs. As such, it requires these individuals to take a long term career perspective to enter the BHRM program. This is not always easy for a young person who has lived their life to date on a very basic income. RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    25. Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program • A true appreciation of what the BHRM program will do to enhance their personal and career satisfaction must be explained in detail by our recruiting team. This team must be sent every year to each of the 19 partner institutions if we are to successfully convey our message to future graduates. And since we can accept only 2-3 individuals from each Institute, this is a high cost process. Again, without the enrichment support from Canadian Pacific, this essential promotional effort would not be possible in today’s world of restrained university budgets. RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    26. Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program • The accreditation standards of the American Association of College and Schools of Business (AACSB) are aimed towards the “traditional” business school program. As such, they have little tolerance for the idiosyncrasies of the content and structure of the Hybrid BHRM. This requires that we constantly must seek to modify not only the program itself, but also the articulation agreements that make it possible for the program to exist. RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    27. Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program • The recent World Tourism Organization (WTO) TedQual accreditation standards, while optimal, create yet another costly and diversionary accreditation standard and data collection process for those programs that which to support WTO in its efforts to maintain and raise the quality of tourism education. RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    28. Issues & Challenges for Implementing and Managing the Calgary Hybrid BHRM Program • The drafting of articulation agreements with each of the 19 cooperating partners was a long and laborious process since each of the institutions had slightly varying program requirements. RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    29. The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education • An ongoing reduction in public funding for university level education, and a resultant pressure for privatization • A growing demand for computer based distance education • Increasing consolidation of key sectors of the tourism industry (most notably airlines and hotels) • A growing lack of personnel willing to fill many of the frontline service functions required by the traditional tourism industry in developed countries, and resulting pressures to automate/mechanize such tasks where possible RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    30. The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education • Cutbacks in commission levels paid to travel agencies, with resulting lower levels of service, direct charges to customers, and transfer of certain tasks to consumers • Increased terrorism, with a resultant fear of travel, in general, and to specific destinations in particular. As a consequence, the study of tourism must be re-conceptualized • The need for increased airport security has increased both the cost and the “hassle factor” of travel by air RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    31. The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education • Growing globalization has increased the need for an international perspective on tourism education and training • The changing nature of the “Travel Destination” has placed an increased emphasis on the need for a destination approach to educational programming and supporting teaching materials • The growing sophistication of many tourism positions is slowly increasing the demand for certain highly trained specialists and for graduate level programs RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    32. The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education • The growing sophistication of travellers is changing their expectations with respect to the kinds of experiences, products, and service quality levels that they are expecting—indeed, demanding • The qualification requirements of tourism educators are being steadily raised, with an accompanying growth in the demand for “educating the educators” programs • The introduction of accreditation standards (e.g. WTO TedQual) is forcing education institutions to increase the teaching and research skills of educators RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    33. The Changing World & Impactson Tourism Education • Increasing pressure to balance economic performance with environmental stewardship is creating pressure for adjustments in the emphasis placed on these areas within tourism education programming • Certain leaders in the tourism industry are starting to realize that unless they step forward to support and enrich tourism education and training in a significant way, that such programs risk being dropped by education/training institutions. RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN

    34. Looking to the Future… RITCHIE / HUDSON / SHEEHAN