Fire Safety R equirements, Standardization and T esting Electrical & Electronic Equipment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fire Safety R equirements, Standardization and T esting Electrical & Electronic Equipment
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Fire Safety R equirements, Standardization and T esting Electrical & Electronic Equipment

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  1. Fire Safety Requirements, Standardization and Testing Electrical & Electronic Equipment Status and Trends Presentation given at Tokyo, 9 September 2014 Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  2. Fire Safety in Electrical Engineering & Electronics (E&E) in Europe • In E&E, general safety requirements including fire safety are defined in the European Low Voltage (LVD) and the Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Directives • Specific fire safety requirements (in the EU: essential requirements) and flammability tests are contained in international standards (IEC, CENELEC for the EU), and the corresponding national standards • Manufacturers set up Document of Conformity (DOC) based on Technical Files Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  3. Fire Safety in Electrical Engineering & Electronics (E&E) • The main flammability tests for E&E are the Bunsen burner based UL 94 tests and the glow wiretests. They basically reflect primary, low energy ignition sources inside of E&E equipment • External, candle-like ignition sources igniting E&E equipment from the outside have been considered for consumer and IT electronics. They have been introduced in Europe • Flammability requirements in E&E mainly apply for IT, audio/video, appliances, technical parts and lighting • The flammability test requirements are basically UL 94 HB, V2 to V0. • In addition the needle flame test may be used • For appliances, the glow wire tests are largely used in Europe Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  4. Course of a fire and small ignition sources Small ignition sources are the cause of most fires. Preventing and delaying their impact Is essential to avoid flashover Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  5. Fire Safety in Electrical Engineering & Electronics (E&E) • The main flammability tests for E&E are the Bunsen burner based UL 94 tests and the Needle Flame test Vertical test to IEC 60695-11-10 (UL 94 V0, V1, V2) 50 W flame Test to IEC 60695-11-20(UL 94 , 5VA, 5VB) 500 W flame Needle Flame test to IEC 60695-11-5 Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  6. AppliancesGlow Wire Test • The European standard EN 60335-1 ”Household and similar electrical appliances – Safety” addresses fire safety requirements in Section 30 “Resistance to Heat and Fire” • The most important flammability test for appliances in Europe is the glow wire test Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  7. Requirements to IEC 60695-2-11 to -13Unattended Connection > 0.2 A • IEC/EN 60695-2-11 Flammability end products (GWT) • 750°C < 2 s required in IEC 335 • if > 2 s Needle flame test to IEC 60695-11-5 or • Class V0 or V1 to IEC 60695-11-10 • IEC/EN 60695-2-12 Flammability materials (GWFI) • 850°C < 30 s • IEC/EN 60695-2-13 Ignitability materials (GWIT) • 775°C < 5 s Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  8. Glow Wire Standards to IEC 60695-2 revised in 2013 • IEC/EN 60695-2-10 (VDE 0471-2-10) Glow wire • Apparatus and common test procedure • IEC/EN 60695-2-11 (VDE 0471-2-11) Glow wire • Flammability test for end products (GWT) • IEC/EN 60695-2-12 (VDE 0471-2-12) Glow wire • Flammability test for materials (GWFI) • IEC/EN 60695-2-13 (VDE 0471-2-13) Glow wire • Ignitability test for materials (GWIT) • No major changes in the revised standards Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  9. External ignition sources • External ignition sources for consumer electronics and IT equipment were developed in the technical specification IEC/TS 62441 “Accidentally caused candle flame ignition” and foreseen to be introduced in the IEC 60065 standard • The TS describes fire hazards from external ignition sources, requiring materials (> 300 g) to meet Class UL94 V1 • However, its introduction has been rejected by an IEC vote in 2010, followingan American NGO activists’ campaign against flame retardants • At the same time, it has been taken over in the corresponding European EN 60065 standard Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  10. Fire Safety in Electrical Engineering & Electronics (E&E) • The revision of the new standard IEC 62368-1 “Audio/video, information and communication technology equipment - Part 1: Safety requirements” also considers external ignition sources • IEC 62368 is a merger of the standards IEC 60065 for consumer electronics and IEC 60950-1 for IT equipment and will substitute them • In a new campaign, the same activists succeeded again to initiate a negative vote, so that the introduction of the external ignition sources in IEC 62368-1 has been rejected in May 2012 • These campaigns against flame retardants in general may may dram reduce the fire safety levels of consumers and IT equipment • in the future and lead to increased threats to human life • and material damages Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  11. Fire Safety in Electrical Engineering & Electronics (E&E) • The dramatic effects of external ignition sources on TV sets is shown in the following videos • Videos (to be included into the presentation) • Test on television 32 inch • Test on television 40 inch Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  12. Fire tests wire & cable • IEC 60332-1: Tests on electric and optical fibre cables under fire conditions - Part 1-2: Test for vertical flame propagation for a single insulated wire or cable - Procedure for 1 kW pre-mixed flame (IEC 60332-1-2:2004) • IEC 60332-2. Part 2-2: Test for vertical flame propagation for a single small insulated wire or cable - Procedure for diffusion flame (IEC 60332-2-2:2004) • IEC 60332-3. Tests on electric and optical fibre cables under fire conditions - Part 3: Test for vertical flame spread of vertically-mounted bunched wires or cables • Modified IEC 60332-3 Test for construction products: EN 50265-2-1/2 with hood for measuring rate of heat release (Basis FIPEC) Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  13. Fire tests wire & cable Flame propagation tests to IEC 60332-1 and -2 IEC 60332-1: Single insulated wire IEC 60332-2: Single small insulated wire Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  14. Fire tests wire & cable Modified IEC 60332-3 Test for construction products: EN 50265-2-1/2 • Flame propagation • Heat release (O2 consumption) • CO2 concentration • Smoke measurement Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  15. Photovoltaics: Problems for fire safety • Photovoltaics (PV): Generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity • Light is converted into electrical power by semi-conductors • Several inter-connected solar cells form a solar module • Although fire safety problems do not occur frequently, • they may take place more often in the future • because of the increasing growth of this technology Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  16. Photovoltaics: Problems for fire safety • In 2009, the world largest photovoltaics roofing site took fire in Bürstadt, Germany, destroying 80 m² of the solar modules • Fire causes are frequently faulty electrical connections within the modules leading to overheating and fire initiation Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  17. Photovoltaics: Problems for fire safety • To date, only limited experience of fire brigades in PV-equipmentfires • Problem: Due to light radiation, solar modules and their components are virtually always live with direct current voltage up to 1,000 V • This may lead to deadly electrical shock during fire-fighting • To this end, guidelines and data sheets have been published. Standardization however, is still in its infancy Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014

  18. Conclusions • E&E ignition/flammability tests address the beginning of an initiating fire • They have shown to prevent or delay fires from E&E materials and end products • Fire tests simulating open flames and malfunction of electrical parts (glow wire) have shown to be very effective • External open flame tests for consumer/IT devices help to improve fire safety • Tests for wire & cable flame propagation contribute to fire safety in many applications for building/construction and transportation • Photovoltaics fire safety is of growing importance Fire safety E&E Tokyo, September 2014