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Session 3: Writing Conventions and Writing Strategies

Session 3: Writing Conventions and Writing Strategies

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Session 3: Writing Conventions and Writing Strategies

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  1. Session 3: Writing Conventions and Writing Strategies • Test-Taking Tips # 3 • Writing on the CAHSEE • Writing Strategies • Writing Conventions • Writing Applications (CAHSEE Essay Writing) • Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay

  2. Test-Taking Tips #3 • Make a plan when you first get your test. • Some people like to do the easy questions first, some like to get the hard ones out of the way. You have to stay within the section, but you can do the questions in the section in any order you wish. • Come to the test prepared by studying this guide, and be confident that you can pass! • On Writing Conventions questions (grammar and usage), trust your ear. • Read the sentence choices aloud in your head to decide which one sounds correct. • Try not to second-guess yourself. Unless you’re sure you made a mistake, don’t over think and change a lot of questions.

  3. What is the purpose of writing? • To communicate an idea • To express emotions • To entertain • To explain • To persuade (convince) • To describe • To respond to literature • Any others??

  4. CAHSEE Writing • 27 Multiple-Choice writing questions total • 1 Essay Questions There are three strands: Writing Strategies Writing Conventions Writing Applications

  5. CAHSEE Writing • Writing Strategies • 12 test questions that ask you to find and correct errors and choose better words and phrases. They are based on a rough draft of an essay or article. . • In this section, you do not have to write any essays, but you have to answer multiple choice questions about editing and revising essays. • Questions may begin, “which sentence would best begin this essay” or “which of the following sentences do not fit well in the paragraph”

  6. Writing Strategies Tips • Read the questions CAREFULLY. The test will often have the important word in ALL CAPITALS. • Exp: “Which of the following word is the BEST substitution for the word “employees” in sentence 1?” • Study the rules of grammar provided here, and think of what a teacher with a red pen may choose. The test is looking for standard English grammar, spelling, and sentence structure. • Study the following information on combining sentences carefully. There are typically a few questions about combining sentences.

  7. Combining Sentences Sentences can be combined by using three punctuation marks: the hyphen (-), the colon(:), the semi-colon (;). (You can also use coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so—F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.!!!) to combine clauses that are grammatically parallel (the same order of word types).

  8. Combining Sentences A colon (:) is also used to add more informationand especially to list things after the colon. What follows a colon may be a clause (She is a great dancer: she practices ballet, salsa and hip-hop.) or a group of words that cannot stand by themselves (She practices many types of dance: ballet, salsa and hip-hop.)

  9. Combining Sentences A semi-colon (;) is used to connect clauses and is the most important punctuation mark for combining sentences. It can be used alone to connect clauses (She is beautiful; her eyes shine like diamonds.) It can also be used to connect clauses together with special linking words such as however, moreover, therefore.

  10. Combining Sentences Sample Question: Choose the answer that is the most effective substitute for each underlined part of the sentence. If no substitution is necessary, choose “Leave as is.” I expect you to finish the work by three, however, if it takes longer, call me. (A) three however, if it takes longer, call me. (B) three: however, if it takes longer, call me. (C) three; however, if it takes longer, call me. (D) Leave as is.

  11. Combining Sentences Solution: What punctuation mark joins the two thoughts into one sentence? A semicolon joins them, since they are both independent clauses that stand on their own but are related. The semi-colon prevents run-ons if used correctly. The correct answer is (C). (A) three however, if it takes longer, call me. (B) three: however, if it takes longer, call me. (C) three; however, if it takes longer, call me. (D) Leave as is.

  12. Main Ideas and Supporting Details see p. 173 In the Writing Strategies questions, you may have to identify main ideas and supporting details. • Topic-Subject of a piece of writing • Main Idea- The most important idea the writer expresses about this topic • Supporting Details-The facts, examples, statistics, or concepts that back up the main idea.

  13. Thesis Statement see p. 173 (we will also talk about this next time when we write essays) • A topic sentence, usually at the end of the first paragraph, that controls the entire essay. In other words, the thesis statement is the point you are trying to prove in your essay. • Example thesis statement: “Most students dislike writing essays because they would rather be doing exciting science experiments, reading poetry, or playing sports.”

  14. Writing Conventions 15 test questions that test your understanding of grammar and your knowledge in the mechanics of punctuation (e.g. semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens). You will also have to identify and use clauses and understand sentence construction (parallel structure, proper placement of modifiers, etc.).

  15. Grammar Review The test will not ask you directly about the “parts of speech”, but they are important in order to understand • Noun: person, place, or thing (dog, New York, OFL) • Verb: action word (talk, study, run) • Adjective: word that describes (happy, bright, fast) • Adverb: a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb; usually ends in ‘-ly’ (happily, very, slowly) • Subject: the subject is the part of the sentence (usually a noun) that performs the action. (she gave me the book; the dog slept) • Predicate: the part of the sentence that is not the subject (she gave me the book; the dog slept) Subject+ Predicate=complete sentence

  16. Grammar Review: Clauses see p. 194 • A clauseis a group of words that has a verb and a subject. Some are complete sentences, but others need to be linked to another clause to make sense. • Independent (Main) Clause: a complete thought, and can stand alone as a sentence or be linked to another clause. • Exp: People had to keep a fire going all the time. • Dependent (Subordinate) Clause: does not express a complete idea, so it has to be linked to the independent clause. • Exp: Before matches made it easy to start a fire Complete sentence using both types of clauses: Before matches made it easy to start a fire, People had to keep a fire going all the time.

  17. Grammar Review: Punctuation see p. 194-195 • Semicolon: used between independent clauses without conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so—F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.!!!) Exp: Fire is our good friend; fire is our deadly enemy. • Colon: used between independent clauses when the second clause explains the first or provides a list. Exp: Fire is important: it heats our home and our food. • Ellipses: three spaced dots, show that something has been omitted (left out) Exp: The firefighter said, “It’s really dangerous…but we have the blaze under control.” • Hyphen: Used in some compound adjectives, numbers, and prefixes. Exp: The well-organized squad of twenty-four firefighters are pro-American.

  18. Grammar Review: Sentence construction and usage see p. 198 • Parallel structure • Subordination • Proper placement of modifiers • Consistency of tenses Talk to the Text in your Measure Up book and discuss with the class

  19. Grammar Review: Proofreading see p. 202 • Usage • Structure • Diction • Grammar • Mechanics Talk to the Text in your Measure Up book and discuss with the class

  20. CAHSEE Writing • Writing Application • On the writing portion of the • CAHSEE exam, you will be given a • “Writing Task” which is oneessay question. • You may be asked to do one of the following: • Biographical Narrative • Response to Literature • Expository Essay • Persuasive Essay • Business Letter

  21. Biographical Narrative see p. 210 Tells the story from the life of a real person. Often, this type of CAHSEE essay question will ask you to write about someone who is important in your life.

  22. Response to Literature see p. 214 You read a (literature) text and are asked to respond (write an essay) based on a question regarding that passage. This type of question asks that you first comprehend the text, then write about it (use TtT and chunking!).

  23. Expository Essay see p. 219 Expository essays (also called compositions) are most often nonfiction, meaning that it deals with real people, things, events and places. The question may ask you to write about an important moment in history or technology, or a question about school.

  24. Persuasive Essay see p. 223 A persuasive essay (or composition) asks you to defend a position or argue for your side of an issue about which people disagree. A sample question may ask you to write an essay for your school paper in which you convince the readers of the importance of volunteer hours as a graduation requirement or a convincing essay about whether or not there should be art and music in school. The readers want you to think about the other side of the argument and keep that in mind as you defend your ideas

  25. Business Letter • see p. 227 • A Business Letteris a formal correspondence about a business related matter. • When you’re writing a business letter, your purpose may be • to apply for a job • to complain • to request information • Etc.

  26. Business Letter (continued) • See p. 228 for an example of format • Besides the way it looks, treat the business letter pretty much the same way you would treat an essay. It should include: • Salutation • Introduction • Body • Conclusion • Signature

  27. CAHSEE Essay Writing • #1. Remember • Make sure to answer all parts • of the writing task. • If the question is asking you to describe the main characters decisions and emotions, • make sure to address both.

  28. CAHSEE Essay Writing • # 2. Remember • Make sure you have the correct five-paragraph essay structure with a strong introduction, three body paragraphs, and conclusion. • Use specific details and examples from the passage to demonstrate your understanding of the main idea’s and the author’s purpose. • Vary your sentences to make your writing more interesting.

  29. CAHSEE Essay Writing # 3. Remember Real people (usually teachers) are hired by the testing company to grade essays. They read a lot of essays, give it a score (1 through 4) quickly, and two grader’s scores are combined for your final score. Make your essay easy to read both in terms of the structure, and in terms of handwriting. If the grader has to struggle to read your essay, they can’t pay attention to your great ideas!

  30. Your CAHSE Essay Should Include • Five strong paragraphs (at least four sentences) • A thesis statement at the end of the introduction paragraph • Clear main ideas • Supporting evidence • Understandable writing • Clearly written (check your handwriting!) • Good (enough) spelling • Clear grammar

  31. How should my essay look? Introduction Body paragraph 1 Body paragraph 2 Body paragraph 3 Conclusion

  32. Kind of like a hamburger…. Introduction Body Paragraph 1 Body Paragraph 2 Body Paragraph 3 Conclusion

  33. Stay Tuned…. • We will go over more information about writing essays next time, and you will practice with the help of your classmates and your teacher. • For now, follow the structure described as well as you can when you respond to the essay assigned for tonight’s homework! (page 212)

  34. Homework Due Next Session • Page, 167-170, 174-176, 196-197, 204-206, Measuring Up • Do your best to respond to the essay topic on page 212. We will go over it in class. • Use p. 211 as a model • Use everything we have learned so far about essay structure • Write at least 5 paragraphs • Vocabulary Flashcards for all bolded words p. 167-202

  35. Session 3: Writing Conventions and Writing Strategies • Test-Taking Tips # 3 • Writing on the CAHSEE • Writing Strategies • Writing Conventions • Writing Applications (CAHSEE Essay Writing) • Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay

  36. Test-Taking Tips #3 • Make a plan when you first get your test. • Some people like to do the easy questions first, some like to get the hard ones out of the way. You have to stay within the section, but you can do the questions in the section in any order you wish. • Come to the test prepared by studying this guide, and be confident that you can pass! • On Writing Conventions questions (grammar and usage), trust your ear. • Read the sentence choices aloud in your head to decide which one sounds correct. • Try not to second-guess yourself. Unless you’re sure you made a mistake, don’t over think and change a lot of questions.

  37. What is the purpose of writing? • To communicate an idea • To express emotions • To entertain • To explain • To persuade (convince) • To describe • To respond to literature • Any others??

  38. CAHSEE Writing • 27 Multiple-Choice writing questions total • 1 Essay Questions There are three strands: Writing Strategies Writing Conventions Writing Applications

  39. CAHSEE Writing • Writing Strategies • 12 test questions that ask you to find and correct errors and choose better words and phrases. They are based on a rough draft of an essay or article. . • In this section, you do not have to write any essays, but you have to answer multiple choice questions about editing and revising essays. • Questions may begin, “which sentence would best begin this essay” or “which of the following sentences do not fit well in the paragraph”

  40. Writing Strategies Tips • Read the questions CAREFULLY. The test will often have the important word in ALL CAPITALS. • Exp: “Which of the following word is the BEST substitution for the word “employees” in sentence 1?” • Study the rules of grammar provided here, and think of what a teacher with a red pen may choose. The test is looking for standard English grammar, spelling, and sentence structure. • Study the following information on combining sentences carefully. There are typically a few questions about combining sentences.

  41. Combining Sentences Sentences can be combined by using three punctuation marks: the hyphen (-), the colon(:), the semi-colon (;). (You can also use coordinating conjunctions (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so—F.A.N.B.O.Y.S.!!!) to combine clauses that are grammatically parallel (the same order of word types).

  42. Combining Sentences A colon (:) is also used to add more informationand especially to list things after the colon. What follows a colon may be a clause (She is a great dancer: she practices ballet, salsa and hip-hop.) or a group of words that cannot stand by themselves (She practices many types of dance: ballet, salsa and hip-hop.)

  43. Combining Sentences A semi-colon (;) is used to connect clauses and is the most important punctuation mark for combining sentences. It can be used alone to connect clauses (She is beautiful; her eyes shine like diamonds.) It can also be used to connect clauses together with special linking words such as however, moreover, therefore.

  44. Combining Sentences Sample Question: Choose the answer that is the most effective substitute for each underlined part of the sentence. If no substitution is necessary, choose “Leave as is.” I expect you to finish the work by three, however, if it takes longer, call me. (A) three however, if it takes longer, call me. (B) three: however, if it takes longer, call me. (C) three; however, if it takes longer, call me. (D) Leave as is.

  45. Combining Sentences Solution: What punctuation mark joins the two thoughts into one sentence? A semicolon joins them, since they are both independent clauses that stand on their own but are related. The semi-colon prevents run-ons if used correctly. The correct answer is (C). (A) three however, if it takes longer, call me. (B) three: however, if it takes longer, call me. (C) three; however, if it takes longer, call me. (D) Leave as is.

  46. Main Ideas and Supporting Details see p. 173 In the Writing Strategies questions, you may have to identify main ideas and supporting details. • Topic-Subject of a piece of writing • Main Idea- The most important idea the writer expresses about this topic • Supporting Details-The facts, examples, statistics, or concepts that back up the main idea.

  47. Thesis Statement see p. 173 (we will also talk about this next time when we write essays) • A topic sentence, usually at the end of the first paragraph, that controls the entire essay. In other words, the thesis statement is the point you are trying to prove in your essay. • Example thesis statement: “Most students dislike writing essays because they would rather be doing exciting science experiments, reading poetry, or playing sports.”

  48. Writing Conventions 15 test questions that test your understanding of grammar and your knowledge in the mechanics of punctuation (e.g. semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens). You will also have to identify and use clauses and understand sentence construction (parallel structure, proper placement of modifiers, etc.).

  49. Grammar Review The test will not ask you directly about the “parts of speech”, but they are important in order to understand • Noun: person, place, or thing (dog, New York, OFL) • Verb: action word (talk, study, run) • Adjective: word that describes (happy, bright, fast) • Adverb: a word that modifies a verb, an adjective, another adverb; usually ends in ‘-ly’ (happily, very, slowly) • Subject: the subject is the part of the sentence (usually a noun) that performs the action. (she gave me the book; the dog slept) • Predicate: the part of the sentence that is not the subject (she gave me the book; the dog slept) Subject+ Predicate=complete sentence

  50. Grammar Review: Clauses see p. 194 • A clauseis a group of words that has a verb and a subject. Some are complete sentences, but others need to be linked to another clause to make sense. • Independent (Main) Clause: a complete thought, and can stand alone as a sentence or be linked to another clause. • Exp: People had to keep a fire going all the time. • Dependent (Subordinate) Clause: does not express a complete idea, so it has to be linked to the independent clause. • Exp: Before matches made it easy to start a fire Complete sentence using both types of clauses: Before matches made it easy to start a fire, People had to keep a fire going all the time.