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Chapter 13 - States of Matter

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  1. Chapter 13 - States of Matter Kinetic Theory and the Nature of Glass All matter is composed of tiny particles in constant motion. For Gases: (PME) • Made up of particles. • Particles moving rapidly in constant, random motion. • All collisions are perfectly elastic. (No energy lost.) Oxygen trivias: (Gas Trivias) 1. Diameter of O2 molecule: 0.339 nm = .000000000339 meters! (very small) 2. Average distance traveled between collisions: 106 nm (Mean free path) Travels over 300x its own diameter before it hits something else. (mostly empty space)

  2. Oxygen trivias: (Gas Trivias) 1. Diameter of O2 molecule: .339 nm = .000000000339 meters! (very small) 2. Average distance traveled between collisions: 106 nm (Mean free path) Travels over 300x its own diameter before it hits something else. (mostly empty space) 3. Average velocity of 02443m/s (~1000mph!) (very fast) 4. Frequency of collisions4.5 billon collisions per second (A lot of collisions)

  3. Gas Particles • Gas pressure is caused by billions of gas particles colliding with an object at the same time. • When no particles are present  empty space  vacuum • Atmospheric pressure - gas particles in the air colliding with objects. • Standard atmospheric pressure (at 0° C): 760 mm of Hg Or 1 atmosphere Or 101.3 kPa (Pascal is the SI unit of pressure.) Barometer – device used to measure atmospheric pressure.

  4. Ex 1) Convert 1400 mm Hg to kPa & atm. 1400mm Hg 1400mm Hg = =

  5. Ex 1) Convert 1400 mm Hg to kPa & atm. 1400mm Hg 1400mm Hg kPa = kPa mm Hg atm =

  6. Heat something temp goes up energy goes into speeding up the particles (increases KE) Temperature - measure of average Kinetic Energy Thermometer What would happen if cooled thermometer until there was no molecular motion? Absolute zero – temp at which there’s no molecular motion. 0 Kelvin ( - 273o C) (not achievable) Outer space 2 – 4 K, Lab conditions 0.0000001 K At 200 K, gas particles have twice the KE of these at 100K. Ch13 HW#1 1 - 5

  7. Ch 13 HW#1 1-5 1.Convert 190 mm Hg to a) kPa b)atm 2. Mt. Everest pressure is 33.7 kPa. Greater or less than .25atm? 3. Explain relationship between absolute temp & KE of particles.

  8. Ch 13 HW#1 1-5 1.Convert 190 mm Hg to a) kPa b)atm a)190 mm Hg 101.3 kPa = 25.1 kPa 760 mm Hg b)190 mm Hg 1 atm = .25 ATM 760 mm Hg 2. Mt. Everest pressure is 33.7 kPa. Greater or less than .25atm? 3. Explain relationship between absolute temp & KE of particles.

  9. Ch 13 HW#1 1-5 1.Convert 190 mm Hg to a) kPa b)atm a)190 mm Hg 101.3 kPa = 25.1 kPa 760 mm Hg b)190 mm Hg 1 atm = .25 ATM 760 mm Hg 2. Mt. Everest pressure is 33.7 kPa. Greater or less than .25atm? 33.7 kPa 1 atm = .33 ATM 101.3 kPa 3. Explain relationship between absolute temp & KE of particles.

  10. Ch 13 HW#1 1-5 1.Convert 190 mm Hg to a) kPa b)atm a)190 mm Hg 101.3 kPa = 25.1 kPa 760 mm Hg b)190 mm Hg 1 atm = .25 ATM 760 mm Hg 2. Mt. Everest pressure is 33.7 kPa. Greater or less than .25atm? 33.7 kPa 1 atm = .33 ATM 101.3 kPa 3. Explain relationship between absolute temp & KE of particles. Directly related as temp goes up, so does KE. (From 100K to 200K (temp doubled), the KE doubles)

  11. 4. How does average KE of H20 affected as you pour hot into equal amount of cold H20? 5. By what factor does ave KE go up as gas increases from 300K to 900K?

  12. 4. How does average KE of H20 affected as you pour hot into equal amount of cold H20? Hot cools as cold warms as they reach middle temp. Average stays constant. 5. By what factor does ave KE go up as gas increases from 300K to 900K?

  13. 4. How does average KE of H20 affected as you pour hot into equal amount of cold H20? Hot cools as cold warms as they reach middle temp. Average stays constant. 5. By what factor does ave KE go up as gas increases from 300K to 900K? 3X

  14. Ch13.2 - The Nature of Liquids + Particles in liquids are free to move around. - They have enough KE that the intermolecular forces are not strong enough to form bonds and make a structure. - Don’t have enough KE to be completely free of each other.

  15. Evaporation - occurs at the surface of the liquid - liquid to gas - faster at higher temps because more KE. - each evaporating particle has to gain enough energy to be able to break the intermolecular forces holding it.

  16. Evaporation - occurs at the surface of the liquid - liquid to gas - faster at higher temps because more KE. - each evaporating particle has to gain enough energy to be able to break the intermolecular forces holding it. - the particles that leave first during evaporation are the first ones – high KE (high temp) The ones left are slower – low KE(low temp) so evaporation causes the liquid to become cooler. - cooling process

  17. Vapor pressure As more particles evaporate, creates a pressure. - each liquid has a unique pressure for each temp. - slower particles can condense back to liquid. Dynamic equilibrium H20(l) H20(g) (both condensation and evaporation at same time.)

  18. Boiling Point of Liquid Boiling Point - special point at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the external pressure. - Normal boiling point - temp at which a liquid boils at standard pressure, 101.3kPa. (Water is 100°C at 101.3kPa.) - the temp of a liquid never rises above its boiling point temp. 100 80 chloroform water VP 60 ethanol ethanoic acid (kPa)40 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temp (°C) FIRE Ch13 HW#2 6-9

  19. Ch13 HW#2 6 – 9 6. Explain vapor pressure. 7. What happens when v.p. reaches ATM pressure? 8. What is the boiling point of water? 9. a)B.P. of water at 60kPa: ____ b)B.P. of water at 80kPa: ____ c)What pressure water boil at 60°C:___ d)For each liquid, what pressure is required to boil at 60°C:

  20. Ch13 HW#2 6 – 9 6. Explain vapor pressure. As the substance evaporates, it creates a pressure above it. 7. What happens when v.p. reaches ATM pressure? 8. What is the boiling point of water? 9. a)B.P. of water at 60kPa: ____ b)B.P. of water at 80kPa: ____ c)What pressure water boil at 60°C:___ d)For each liquid, what pressure is required to boil at 60°C:

  21. Ch13 HW#2 6 – 9 6. Explain vapor pressure. As the substance evaporates, it creates a pressure above it. 7. What happens when v.p. reaches ATM pressure? The substance starts to boil. 8. What is the boiling point of water? 9. a)B.P. of water at 60kPa: ____ b)B.P. of water at 80kPa: ____ c)What pressure water boil at 60°C:___ d)For each liquid, what pressure is required to boil at 60°C:

  22. Ch13 HW#2 6 – 9 6. Explain vapor pressure. As the substance evaporates, it creates a pressure above it. 7. What happens when v.p. reaches ATM pressure? The substance starts to boil. 8. What is the boiling point of water? It depends on the pressure! At standard atm pressure, its 100°C. 100 80 chloroform water VP 60 ethanol ethanoic acid (kPa)40 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temp (°C) 9. a)B.P. of water at 60kPa: ____ b)B.P. of water at 80kPa: ____ c)What pressure water boil at 60°C:___ d)For each liquid, what pressure is required to boil at 60°C: chloroform : ____ ethanol :____ water :____ ethanoic acid:____

  23. Ch13 HW#2 6 – 9 6. Explain vapor pressure. As the substance evaporates, it creates a pressure above it. 7. What happens when v.p. reaches ATM pressure? The substance starts to boil. 8. What is the boiling point of water? It depends on the pressure! At standard atm pressure, its 100°C. 100 80 chloroform water VP 60 ethanol ethanoic acid (kPa)40 20 20 40 60 80 100 120 Temp (°C) 9. a)B.P. of water at 60kPa: (90°C) b)B.P. of water at 80kPa: (95°C) c)What pressure water boil at 60°C:(20kPa) d)For each liquid, what pressure is required to boil at 60°C: chloroform : (100kPa) ethanol : (50kPa) water : (20kPa) ethanoic acid: (10kPa)

  24. Ch13.3 – The Nature of Solids - particles in solids are packed together in highly organized 3-D patterns. Call them crystalline solids. - vibrate about fixed positions - when heat a solid, vibrate more rapidly, break structure, melts. - ionic solids have high melting points - stronger bonds. NaCl 801°C - molecular solids (covalent bonds) - weaker bonds, lower melting points. - some solids decompose instead of melt. (like wood)

  25. Crystals have different structures based on the sizes of the particles bonding. (table of crystals pg398.) - crystals have repeating patterns. The simplest repeating pattern is called the unit cell. Simple Cubic - (usually only 1 type of atom) Atoms located at corners of a cube. Body Centered Cube - (usually only 1 type of ions) 2 types of atoms are about the same size, so crystal forms shape where 1 type is at corners of cube, other is located in center. Face Centered Cubic - (usually 2 types of atoms) 1 is a lot larger than other , small ones can fill the holes between large ones on faces of cube. Because of closeness of atoms, strong bonds, high m.p. Ex: NaCl

  26. Allotropes – different structures of the same element. Ex: Carbon has diamond and graphite Not all solids have a crystalline form. Amorphous solid – lack an ordered internal structure. Exs: glass, butter Sometimes referred to as super-cooled liquids. Sublimation – solid that goes directly to the gaseous phase. Exs: dry ice, moth balls, popsicles, solid air fresheners.

  27. Phase Diagram - Water 22,100 Liquid 101.3 Solid Gas Pressure (kPa) 0 100 374 Temperature (C°)

  28. Phase Diagram - Water Critical Point 22,100 Liquid 101.3 Solid Pressure (kPa) Gas Triple Point 0 100 374 Temperature (C°) Critical point for water – At 374°C and 22,100kPa is the last point where water can still be condensed to a liquid. Triple point – all 3 phases are in equilibrium

  29. Phase Diagram - Water Critical Point 22,100 Liquid 101.3 Solid Pressure (kPa) Gas Triple Point 0 100 374 Temperature (C°) Ex: What is the physical state of H2O at 50°C and 70 kPa?_____ Name a temp and pressure that H2O boils at: _____________ Ch13 HW#3 10 – 15

  30. Ch13 HW#3 10 – 15 10) Name a physical property to distinguish molecular solid from ionic. 11) Substance goes directly from solid to gas: _________ 12) Popsicle in freezer for long time, wrapper sticky - Why? 13) Triple point:

  31. Ch13 HW#3 10 – 15 10) Name a physical property to distinguish molecular solid from ionic. melting point 11) Substance goes directly from solid to gas: _________ 12) Popsicle in freezer for long time, wrapper sticky - Why? 13) Triple point:

  32. Ch13 HW#3 10 – 15 10) Name a physical property to distinguish molecular solid from ionic. melting point 11) Substance goes directly from solid to gas: sublimation 12) Popsicle in freezer for long time, wrapper sticky - Why? 13) Triple point:

  33. Ch13 HW#3 10 – 15 10) Name a physical property to distinguish molecular solid from ionic. melting point 11) Substance goes directly from solid to gas: sublimation 12) Popsicle in freezer for long time, wrapper sticky - Why? The ice in the popsicle sublimes 13) Triple point:

  34. Ch13 HW#3 10 – 15 10) Name a physical property to distinguish molecular solid from ionic. melting point 11) Substance goes directly from solid to gas: sublimation 12) Popsicle in freezer for long time, wrapper sticky - Why? The ice in the popsicle sublimes 13) Triple point: Point where all three phases in equilibrium

  35. Phase Diagram - Water Critical Point 22,100 Liquid 101.3 Solid 14) Physical state from graph: a) 80°C & 100 kPa ____ b) 20°C & 20 kPa ____ c) .005°C & 20 kPa ____ 15) Water boils at 100°C at pressure of 101.3 kPa a) Name another set __________ b) Name a temp & pressure where water sublimes __________ Pressure (kPa) Gas Triple Point 0 100 374 Temperature (C°)

  36. Phase Diagram - Water Critical Point 22,100 Liquid 101.3 Solid 14) Physical state from graph: a) 80°C & 100 kPa liquid b) 20°C & 20 kPa liquid/gas c) .005°C & 20 kPa solid 15) Water boils at 100°C at pressure of 101.3 kPa a) Name another set __________ b) Name a temp & pressure where water sublimes __________ Pressure (kPa) Gas Triple Point 0 100 374 Temperature (C°)

  37. Phase Diagram - Water Critical Point 22,100 Liquid 101.3 Solid 14) Physical state from graph: a) 80°C & 100 kPa liquid b) 20°C & 20 kPa liquid/gas c) .005°C & 20 kPa solid 15) Water boils at 100°C at pressure of 101.3 kPa a) Name another set (any point on green line between triple and crit) b) Name a temp & pressure where water sublimes __________ Pressure (kPa) Gas Triple Point 0 100 374 Temperature (C°)

  38. Ch13.4 – More Phase diagrams 22,100 Phase Diagram - Water Liquid 101.3 Solid Pressure (kPa) Gas 0 100 374 Temperature (C°) 1) What state is H2O at: a) 50°C and 50 kPa ____ b) 75°C and 50 kPa ___ c) 0°C, 25 kPa ____ d) -10°C, 0.5 kPa ____ 2) What is a critical point? 3) What is a triple point? b) What is the triple point of H2O? _______ 4) What is the boiling point of water? b) What is the normal b.p. of H2O? 5) What is the melting point of H2O? b) What is the normal m.p.? 6) Are there any conditions where H2O sublimes?

  39. Plasma KE of particles becomes so large, motion so radical, that even the electrons get ripped off the atoms. Left with a bunch of +/- charges. - Outer space is mostly a plasma because the matter comes from stars (hot) - Partial plasmas in fluorescent lights, neon signs, lightning bolts, flames. - Aurora Borealis - Cold plasmas 50,000K – 100,000K (few gases) - Stars 10million K – 1billion K Ch13 HW#4 WS

  40. Ch13 HW#4 Worksheet

  41. Chapter 14.1 – Behavior of Gases Factors that affect the behavior of gases: 1) Number of particles - More particles = Higher gas pressure Double the particles, Double the pressure

  42. Chapter 14.1 – Behavior of Gases Factors that affect the behavior of gases: 1) Number of particles - More particles = Higher gas pressure 2) Size of container - reducing the size of the container increases pressure Double the particles, Double the pressure Boyle’s Law: V1.P1 = V2.P2 Big V Small P Small V Big P

  43. Chapter 14.1 – Behavior of Gases Factors that affect the behavior of gases: 1) Number of particles - More particles = Higher gas pressure 2) Size of container - reducing the size of the container increases pressure 3) Temperature - increases temp particles have more KE. To adjust, the gas must have higher pressure OR must occupy larger volume! Double the particles, Double the pressure Boyle’s Law: P1.V1 = P2.V2 Big V Small P Small V Big P Double the temp = double the pressure or double the volume Must be in Kelvin! OC+273 = K Charles’ Law Fire

  44. Ex 1) A balloon contains 30 L of helium gad at 100kPa. What is the volume when the balloon rises to an altitude where the pressure is only 25kPa? Ex 2) A balloon filled at 27oC had a volume of 4.0L. It is heated to 57oC. What is the new volume?

  45. Ex 1) A balloon contains 30 L of helium gad at 100kPa. What is the volume when the balloon rises to an altitude where the pressure is only 25kPa? P1V1 = P2V2 P1= 100 kPa (100kPa)(30L)=(25kPa)(V2) V1= 30L P2= 25 kPa V2=120L V2= ? Ex 2) A balloon filled at 27oC had a volume of 4.0L. It is heated to 57oC. What is the new volume? T1= 27oC 300K V1 = 4.0L T2 = 57oC 330K V2 = ? V2 = 4.4L

  46. Ex 3) The gas left in a used aerosol can is at a pressure of 100kPa at 27oC. If it is thrown into a fire, what will the pressure be if it reaches a temp of 927oC? Ch14 HW#1 1 – 6

  47. Ex 3) The gas left in a used aerosol can is at a pressure of 100kPa at 27oC. If it is thrown into a fire, what will the pressure be if it reaches a temp of 927oC? P1 = 100kPa T1 = 27oC 300K P2 = ? T2 = 927oC 1200K P2 = 400 kPa Ch14 HW#1 1 – 6

  48. CH 14 HW#1 1-6 1. Gas occupies 2.5L when at 100 kPa. If pressure changes to 40 kPa, volume? Piston in or out? V1 = 2.5L V2 = ? P1 = 100kPa P2 = 40kPa 2. Gas occupies 2.5L when at 100 kPa. If pressure changes to 250 kPa, volume? Piston in or out? V1 = 2.5L V2 = ? P1 = 100kPa P2 = 250kPa

  49. CH 14 HW#1 1-6 1. Gas occupies 2.5L when at 100 kPa. If pressure changes to 40 kPa, volume? Piston in or out? V1 = 2.5L V2 = ? P1 = 100kPa P2 = 40kPa V2 = 6.5L (OUT) 2. Gas occupies 2.5L when at 100 kPa. If pressure changes to 250 kPa, volume? Piston in or out? V1 = 2.5L V2 = ? P1 = 100kPa P2 = 250kPa

  50. CH 14 HW#1 1-6 1. Gas occupies 2.5L when at 100 kPa. If pressure changes to 40 kPa, volume? Piston in or out? V1 = 2.5L V2 = ? P1 = 100kPa P2 = 40kPa V2 = 6.5L (OUT) 2. Gas occupies 2.5L when at 100 kPa. If pressure changes to 250 kPa, volume? Piston in or out? V1 = 2.5L V2 = ? P1 = 100kPa P2 = 250kPa V2 = 1L(IN)