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Solar energy project at Biosphere 2

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  1. Solar energy project at Biosphere 2 Alex Cronin Biosphere 2 Board Meeting May 15 2009

  2. Biosphere 2 goes solar • Exploit unique facilities of Biosphere 2 and B2 campus to address fundamental questions associated with practical, • “smart grid” implementation of solar energy • Develop a solar energy based, MWatt range PV solar generation, storage and smart grid system on Biosphere 2 campus as research, demonstration and educational tool

  3. Aggressive renewable portfolio standards Illinois: 8% by 2013 Iowa: 105 MW Minnesota: Xcel 1,125 MW by 2010 Wisconsin: 2.2% by 2011 Illinois: 8% by 2013 Iowa: 105 MW Minnesota: Xcel 1,125 MW by 2010 Wisconsin: 2.2% by 2011 Connecticut: 10% by 2010 DC: 11% by 2022 Maine: 30% by 2000 Maryland: 7% by 2008 Massachusetts: 4% new by 2009 New Jersey: 6.5% by 2008 New York: 25% by 2013 Pennsylvania: 18% by 2020 Rhode Island: 16% by 2009 Vermont=load growth 2005-2012 Arizona: 15% by 2025 California: 20% by 2017 Colorado: 10% by 2015 Hawaii: 20% by 2020 Montana: 15% by 2015 Nevada: 20% by 2015 New Mexico: 10% by 2011 Texas: 10,000 MW by 2025

  4. Rated Power 2,640 Watts peak Effect of clouds on solar power yield

  5. Solar power is intermittent

  6. Solar power is intermittent

  7. Quiz • Question: • Will 1 more MW of solar displace 1 MW of coal? Answer: If solar power generation exceeds 2% of supply (30 MW in Tucson), then no ….not withoutstorageand asmart grid.

  8. Storage RPS mandates can only be reached if renewable energy sources are smoothed and made dispatchable byenergy storage • Energy Storage can: • Provide power quality (voltage support) • Bridge outages seamlessly • Allow load following for DG; make renewables dispatchable • Provide peak shaving • Defer need for transmission and generation upgrades • Can it also: • Reduce CO2 ? • Reduce cost ? • Be easily integrated into industry-scale systems?

  9. Biosphere 2 – solar and grid 500 kGal Water Tanks Casitas 50 kW Casitas 50 kW 50 kW solar B2 2 MW 1.5 MW diesel 1.5 MW gas Grid / Substation

  10. Biosphere 2 – solar smart grid 500 kGal Water Tanks 2 MW NAS battery 50 kW Pump / Turbine 2 MW solar Advanced MicroGrid Control System Casitas 50 kW Casitas 50 kW 50 kW solar B2 2 MW 1.5 MW diesel 1.5 MW gas Grid / Substation

  11. Scenario A charging discharging

  12. Casitas 50 kW Casitas 50 kW B2 2 MW

  13. 0.35 MW (peak) of solar panels

  14. Financing 2 MW Solar = 10 M$ * 2 MW battery = 4 M$ ** Control Electronics = 2 M$ Research Team = 2 M$ * Solar PPA: -5M REC, -1.5M tax, 3.5M. Pays for itself in 8 yrs. ** DOE Smart Grid technologies: 50% match Potential partnerships:

  15. THANK YOU Dr. Alex Cronin Department of Physics The University of Arizona

  16. Efficiency first! (nicely done) Average daily electricity consumption … Renewables next.

  17. Other research • Energy Storage: • Pumped Hydro • Compressed Air • Plug In Hybrid Batteries • Grid Control and Storage Value Demonstration • partnership with businesses • S&C, TI, SOLON, TEP, APS • PV performance • different environments in AZ • degradation rates • energy yields • Cost, Reliability, Efficiency,Storage,Transmission • C R E S T of challenges for renewables

  18. Momentary interruptions (<5min) are more c ostly than sustained snterruptions Outage Costs for U.S. Industry • Estimated at $79 Billion Annually in a recent study by Joe Eto, LBL • Total U.S. Cost of Electricity $250 Billion Annually Joe Eto LBL

  19. PV module production in MW

  20. 300 kGal Water Tank 2 MW NAS battery 0.05 MW Pump / Turbine 2 MW solar 200 kGal Water Tank Advanced MicroGrid Control System Casitas 0.05 MW Casitas 0.05 MW 0.05 MW solar B2 0.5 to 3.0 MW 1.5 MW diesel 1.5 MW gas Grid / Substation Solar smart grid