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Confederation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Confederation. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL FACTORS LEADING TO CONFEDERATION. INTERNAL & EXTERNAL FACTORS. Internal Factors Factors occurring in BNA 1. Repeal of the Corn Laws 2. Political Deadlock 3. The Railway. External Factors Factors occurring outside of BNA 1. Manifest Destiny

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Internal external factors

  • Internal Factors

    • Factors occurring in BNA

    • 1. Repeal of the Corn Laws

    • 2. Political Deadlock

    • 3. The Railway

  • External Factors

    • Factors occurring outside of BNA

    • 1. Manifest Destiny

    • 2. The Trent Affair

    • 3. The Chesapeake Incident

    • 4. The St. Alban’s Raid

    • 5. The Fenian Raids

    • 6. End of Reciprocity

Internal factor 1 repeal of the corn laws
Internal Factor #1 – Repeal of the Corn Laws

  • The Corn Laws were British laws which set customs duties on wheat and other cereal grains imported into Britain

    • This ensured that Britain would get their ‘corn’ from British colonies

  • British colonies (Upper & Lower Canada) were being charged far less import duty than grain growers who were not a part of the British Empire

  • In 1846, Britain repealed (cancelled) the Corn Laws and moved towards free trade

    • This caused Canadian farmers to lose their trading terms and price advantage over American producers and the American producers took a larger share of the British market

Internal factor 2 political deadlock
Internal Factor #2 – Political Deadlock

Canada West

Liberal-Conservative Party (Tories)

John A. Macdonald


Clear Grits (Reform Party)

George Brown

Canada East

Le Parti Bleu (Conservatives)

George-Etienne Cartier


Le Parti Rouge (Reform Party)

Antoine-Aime Dorion

Internal factor 2 political deadlock1
Internal Factor #2 – Political Deadlock

  • Political Deadlock is a situation where progress cannot be made because the parties involved do not agree

    • Canada East (French) vs. Canada West (English)

    • The 2 issues that created this deadlock were:

      • Transportation

      • Representation

Internal factor 2 political deadlock2
Internal Factor #2 – Political Deadlock

  • Transportation

    • Canada West wanted to expand transportation facilities to increase trade and wealth; they were willing to spend government money to do so.

    • Canada East did not want to change their existing way of life; they felt that better links with Canada West would threaten their identity and they resisted attempts to spend tax money on transportation improvements.

  • Representation

    • Canada West supported Representation by Population

    • Canada East wanted to retain equal representation

      • Disagreements about these two issues led to a coalition between MacDonald, Cartier, and Brown

      • Coalition is - a temporary joining together of two or more political parties

      • The determination of the Canadian leaders to change the government was the spark that put Confederation into motion.

      • Representation by Population was agreed upon

Internal factor 3 the railway
Internal Factor #3 – The Railway

  • Canada West, Canada East, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick had their own railway but they were not all connected.

  • The railway was needed to increase trade and move troops more quickly in case of war.

  • The railway would increase communication (quicker movement of mail) and increase business.

  • An INTERCOLONIAL railway would overcome problems: mountains and freezing of St. Lawrence.

  • Due to financial trouble the building came to a halt and politicians dreamed to connect Canada from sea to sea.

  • Confederation was needed to build this railway.

Internal factor 3 the railway1
Internal Factor #3 – The Railway

  • Did You Know?