Section 1. The U.s. enters WWI. Porfirio Diaz ruled Mexico from 1884-1911 Encouraged foreign investment to develop nation Majority of people were poor and landless and frustrated 1911 revolution erupted and forced Diaz to flee Francisco Madero took Diaz’s place
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Encouraged foreign investment to develop nation
Majority of people were poor and landless and frustrated
1911 revolution erupted and forced Diaz to flee
Francisco Madero took Diaz’s place
Unskilled administrator & Mexico continued to decline
Army officers plotted against MaderoThe Mexican revolution
General Victoriano Huerta seized power in Mexico and Madero was murdered, probably on Huerta’s orders
Wilson upset by Huerta’s actions refused to recognize new gov’t
Felt without U.S. support the gov’t would soon be overthrownCont.
April 1914 American sailors were arrested in Tampico for entering a restricted area
Quickly released but Wilson demanded an apology
Mexicans refused and Wilson used refusal as an opportunity get rid of Huerta
Wilson sent marines to seize Mexican port of VeracruzWilson sends troops to Mexico
Marines were not welcomed like Wilson thought they would be entering a restricted area
Riots broke out
Venustiano Carranza became Mexico’s president
Mexicans who opposed Carranza weren’t happy so they conducted raids in the U.S. hoping to force Wilson to interveneCont.
Pancho Villa- led a group of guerillas that burned Columbus, New Mexico killing Americans
Guerillas- armed band that uses surprise attacks and sabotage other than open warfare
Wilson responded by sending 6,000 troops led by General John J. Pershing to capture Villa
Pershing failed to capture guerillas; Wilson recalls Pershing’s troops with growing concern in Europe in 1917Cont.
Read this section New Mexico killing Americans
Understand how Germany became a nation
France and Germany enemies
Triple AllianceThe alliance system
While major powers in Europe were dividing into alliances, Great Britain remained neutral
1898 Germans began building a navy challenging Great Britain’s navy
Naval race had begun which increased tensions with Germany and Great Britain causing Great Britain to establish closer relations with France and Russia
Refused a formal alliance so it became known as an “entente cordiale”- friendly understanding (Triple Entente)The Naval race
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austro-Hungarian throne, was assassinated as he rode through Sarajevo
GavriloPrincip was the shooter and he was a member of the “Black Hand” (Serbian Nationalist Group)
Serbian’s knew this was going to happen, they were looking to start warA continent goes to war
Austrians asked German allies for support before attacking Serbia because they feared an attack would trigger war with Russia
Serbs counted on Russia to back them up, Russia counted on France to back them
July 28, 1914 Austria declared war on Serbia
Russia mobilizes an army
August 1 Germany declares war on Russia, 2 days later declared war on France
WWI had begunCont.
Germany had been waiting for war for a long time Serbia because they feared an attack would trigger war with Russia
Launched massive invasion of France hoping to knock them out fast
With France out of the picture Germany could then focus on sending troops to Russia
Problem: Germany had to advance through neutral Belgium
German troops crossed the Belgian frontier and Britain declared war on GermanyGermany’s plan fails
Germany’s plan worked at first Serbia because they feared an attack would trigger war with Russia
They blew through Belgium and drove French and British forces back
Then Russia invaded Germany catching Germany by surprise
Germany forced to pull troops from France and send them east
French troops stopped German advances at the Battle of the MarneCont.
Both sides were locked in a bloody stalemate for 3 years in hundreds of miles of trenchesCont.
Allies- France, Russia, and Great Britain formed the backbone (Italy came in later)
Central Powers- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire, and BulgariaCont.
Read this section backbone (Italy came in later)
British blockade Germany to keep it from obtaining supplies backbone (Italy came in later)
Contraband- prohibited materials
Germans knew how much the Allies depended on the U.S. for supplies
To get around Britain’s blockade the Germans deployed submarines known as U-boats
U-boats would attempt to sink without warning any ship found around BritainBritish blockade
Germany’s announcement triggered outrage backbone (Italy came in later)
International treaty stated military vessels must reveal their intentions to merchant ships and make provisions for the safety of the targeted ship’s crew and passengers before sinking it
Germans disagreed saying it would give away there positionCont.
Arthur Zimmerman, German official, cabled German ambassador in Mexico telling him to instruct Mexican gov’t to ally with Germany in an event of war b/w Germany and U.S.
Mexico would regain Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona after war (if Germany won)
Germany hoped this would occupy U.S. and keep them out of Europe
British intelligence intercepted this Zimmerman telegraph, shortly after it was leaked in American papersU.S. declares war
Feb. 1, 1917 Germany resumes submarine warfare in Mexico telling him to instruct Mexican
Didn’t believe U.S. could raise an Army fast enough
Germany sank 6 American merchants ship between Feb 3-March21
Wilson appears before a special session of Congress to ask for a declaration of war
Senate: 82-6 in favor (April 4, 1917)
House: 373-50 in favor (April 6, 1917)
America was now at warCont.