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  1. Physical Education and Physical Activity: Growing Divide or Rallying Cry? Russell L. Carson – Louisiana State University Amy Woods – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Brian Mosier – University of West Georgia Brian Culp – Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Doris Watson – University of Nevada Las Vegas Linda Shoendstedt – Xavier University

  2. Two topics of interest • Understanding of current communities • Preparation of PETE programs for social justice and civic engagement

  3. Community discourse • The settings of our recent focus have become more diverse • Sensitivity to CLD groups’ experiences with -health care providers and researchers ¹ • Higher education, well-intended, but potentially exploitive² • Context , ethical behavior and environmental awareness³ • Utilitarian needs vs. metaphysical needs⁴ • Knowledge, is a dynamic entity • Perceived vs. real cultural differences and values⁶ • Fundamental knowledge of health is not consistently applied⁷ • A multicultural society needs a multifaceted lens⁸ • Seeing is believing and the value in new lines of inquiry⁹ • Freimuth, V.S. et al. (2001). African Americans’ Views on Research and the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. Social Science and Medicine, 52, 797-808.¹ • Harkavy, I. (2000). Service-Learning, Academically Based Community Service, and the Historic Mission of the American Urban Research University. In I. Harkavy, and B.M. Donovan, (Eds) Connecting Past and Present: Concepts and Models for Service-Learning in History American Association for Higher Education, Washington, D.C., page 32. ² • Pelham, A., Sills, E.(2009). Promoting Health and Wellness in Underserved Communities: Multidisciplinary Perspectives Through Service-Learning. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing.³ • Miller, M. P., & Nendel, J. D. (2011). Service-learning in physical education and related professions: A global perspective. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.⁴ • Okseon, L., & Martinek, T. (2009). Navigating Two Cultures: An Investigation of CuItures of a Responsibility-Based Physical Activity Program and School. Research Quarterly For Exercise & Sport, 80(2), 230-240. ⁶ • Keating, X., Li, C., Jianmin, G., Harrison Jr., L., & Dauenhauer, B. (2009). Urban Minority Ninth-Grade Students' Health-Related Fitness Knowledge. Research Quarterly For Exercise & Sport, 80(4), 747-755. ⁷ • Kulinna, P., McCaughtry, N., Martin, J., & Cothran, D. (2011). Effects of Continuing Professional Development on Urban Elementary Students' Knowledge. Research Quarterly For Exercise & Sport, 82(3), 580-584. ⁷ • McKenzie, T. L. (2010). 2009 C. H. McCloy Lecture Seeing Is Believing: Observing Physical Activity and Its Contexts. Research Quarterly For Exercise & Sport, 81(2), 113-122. ⁸ • Rovegno, I. (2008). Learning and Instruction in Social, Cultural Environments: Promising Research Agendas. Quest (00336297), 60(1), 84-104. ⁹

  4. Social Justice and Civic Engagement • Understanding what social justice entails • Equality as a demand and expectation ¹ • Preparing PETE programs to be culturally competent² • Service-learning as a method of teaching, to a point³ • What is our focus and do we have a seat at the front?⁴ • Civic engagement and CSPAP • Worthy⁵ • Transforming students, defining civic behavior⁶ • Civically intended or civic activists?⁶ • Rewarding scholarship and reinforcing our purpose in public health⁷ • Stoll, S. (2011). Social Justice: An Historical and Philosophical Perspective. The Journal Of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 82(8), 36-39. ¹ • Columna, L., Foley, J. T., & Lytle, R. K. (2010). Physical Education Teachers' and Teacher Candidates' Attitudes Toward Cultural Pluralism. Journal Of Teaching In Physical Education, 29(3), 295-311. ¹ • Harrison Jr., L., Carson, R. L., & Burden Jr., J. (2010). Physical Education Teachers' Cultural Competency. Journal Of Teaching In Physical Education, 29(2), 184-198. ¹ • Domangue, E., & Carson, R. (2008). Preparing Culturally Competent Teachers: Service-Learning and Physical Education Teacher Education. Journal Of Teaching In Physical Education, 27(3), 347-367. ³ • Burden Jr., J. W., Hodge, S. R., O'Bryant, C. P., & Harrison, J. L. (2004). From colorblindness to intercultural sensitivity: infusing diversity training in PETE programs. Quest (00336297), 56(2), 173-189. ⁴ • Doolittle, S., Beale, A., & Demarzo, J. (2009). A Collaboration for Health and Physical Education in High-Need Schools and Communities. The Journal Of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(7), 29-35. ⁵ • Beighle, A., Castelli, D., Erwin, H., & Ernst, M. (2009). Preparing Physical Educators for the Role of Physical Activity Director. The Journal Of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 80(4), 24-29. ⁵ • Russell, J., & Buchanan, A. (2011). Addressing diverse populations through service learning. In M. Miller & J. Nendel (Eds.), Service-learning in physical education and related professions: A global perspective (pp. 151 – 168). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.⁶ • Sallis, J. F., McKenzie, T. L., Beets, M. W., Beighle, A., Erwin, H., & Lee, S. (2012). Physical Education's Role in Public Health: Steps Forward and Backward Over 20 Years and HOPE for the Future. Research Quarterly For Exercise & Sport, 83(2), 125-135. ⁷

  5. PE’s Role in Public Health: Sallis & McKenzie (1991) Sallis, McKenzie et al., (2012) • Increasing PA is more important than improving fitness • Health-related physical education programs are needed • Physical education must pursue a public health goal • Physical education should prepare children for a lifetime of PA • Despite no known negative side effects on academics, PE has seen less time and emphasis due to standardized testing • No general consensus on which PE programs/models should be adopted • Lack of data supporting evidence-based PE practices

  6. F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America's Future • Current Trajectory for 2030: • Obesity rates for adults could reach or exceed 44 percentin every state and exceed 60 percent in 13 states • The number of new cases of type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, hypertension and arthritis could increase 10 times between 2010 and 2020 — and then double again by 2030 • Obesity-related health care costs could increase by more than 10 percent in 43 states and by more than 20 percentin nine states.

  7. Physical Activity & Academic Achievement • The association between school based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance (CDC, 2010) • Cognitive benefits (Grieco et al., 2009; Hillman et al., 2009; Mahar et al., 2006) • Readiness to learn(Mahar, 2011; Kamijo et al., 2011) • Randomized clinical trials: • FIT Kids: PA after school – higher scores on memory tasks (Castelli et al., 2011) • Better standardized test scores:(Castelli et al., 2011;Donnelly & Lombourne, 2011) • Brain structure and function is different! (Hillman et al., 2012) Fit Children Sedentary Children

  8. NASPE survey: (2011) • Elementary (16%) • Middle school (13%) • High schools (6%) • HOPE • Sallis, McKenzie, et al. 2012 • See Rink, J. (Ed.). (2012). Role of Directors of CSPAPs [Special Issue]. • JOPERD.

  9. Research Evidence & Grant Opportunities ThePerfect Storm… National Support Childhood Obesity To take control and responsibility for our field!

  10. Physical Education Physical Activity