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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY TISSUES. TISSUES. group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function. Tissues: 4 Types. Epithelial Connective Muscle Nervous. Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium). the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body Functions: Protection Secretion

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  • group of similar cells specialized to perform a specific function
tissues 4 types
Tissues: 4 Types
  • Epithelial
  • Connective
  • Muscle
  • Nervous
epithelial tissue epithelium
Epithelial Tissue (Epithelium)
  • the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body
  • Functions:
  • Protection
  • Secretion
  • Absorption
  • Filtration
characteristic of epithelium
Characteristic of Epithelium
  • cells close together, some connected by cell junctions
  • top layer exposed to exterior of body or inside of cavity (apical layer)
  • lower surface connected to a Basement Membrane (BM)
  • is avascular (no direct blood supply)
  • able to regenerate if well nourished
classification of epithelium
Classification of Epithelium



>1 layer cells

  • 1 layer cells
shape classification of epithelium
Shape Classification of Epithelium




  • “fried-egg” shape
shape classification of epithelium1
Shape Classification of Epithelium


Name the shape:

  • tall, rectangular shape
simple epithelium
Simple Epithelium
  • Functions:
    • Absorption
    • Secretion
    • Filtration
simple squamous epithelium
Simple Squamous Epithelium
  • thin layer squamous cells resting on BM
  • cells close together (think floor tiles)
  • forms membranes where filtration or rapid diffusion necessary (lungs, kidneys)
  • forms serous membranes or serosa : moist, shiny membranes that line ventral body cavities and covers organ in them
simple cuboidal epithelium
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
  • 1 layer cuboidal cells on BM
  • found in glands, ducts, kidney tubules, covers ovaries
simplecolumnar epithelium
SimpleColumnar Epithelium
  • 1 layer columnar cells packed closely together
  • interspersed with Goblet Cells which make & release mucus
  • lines GI tract from stomach  anus
  • forms mucosae (mucous membranes) that line body cavities open to exterior of body
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
  • appears to have multiple layers but only has 1
  • all cells attached to BM but not all cells reach apical surface (top)
  • mainly does absorption & secretion
  • 2 varieties:
  • Ciliated
    • in lining of trachea
  • Nonciliated
stratified epithelium
Stratified Epithelium
  • >1 layer of cells, epithelium named for shape of top layer
  • more durable than simple epithelium
  • primary function is protection
stratified squamous epithelium
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
  • #1 stratified epithelium in body
  • 2 varieties:
  • keratinized
  • nonkeratinized
    • Keratin: tough, insoluble protein found in hair, nails, & epidermis
stratified squamous epithelium1
Stratified Squamous Epithelium



stratified cuboidal epithelium
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
  • 2 or more layers with top layer cuboidal
transitional epithelium
Transitional Epithelium
  • “transitions” from 1 shape to another
  • found in urinary bladder, ureters, urethra
  • when vol of urine high epitheliumis stretched and epithelium looks like squamous cells
  • when vol of urine low cells appear dome-shaped, cuboidal
stratified columnar epithelium
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
  • found in salivary ducts
connective tissue ct
Connective Tissue (CT)
  • connects things
  • is everywhere in body
  • #1 tissue type for amount and distribution
connective tissue characteristics
Connective Tissue Characteristics
  • most CT well vascularized
    • except:
      • ligaments, tendons poor blood supply
      • cartilage is avascular
  • make extracellular matrix (in varying amounts)
extracellular matrix
Extracellular Matrix
  • 2 main elements:
  • structureless ground substance
    • water
    • adhesive proteins (glues everything together)
    • charged polysaccharides (trap water) control viscosity of the CT
  • fibers
    • collagen: #1 protein in body
    • elastic
    • reticular
connective tissues functions
Connective Tissues Functions
  • protection
  • support
  • binding substances together
  • absorption of large amounts of water (ground substance)
types of connective tissues
Types of Connective Tissues
  • Bone
  • Cartilage
  • Dense CT
  • Loose CT
  • Blood
  • aka osseous tissue
  • few cells surrounded by hard matrix
    • calcium salts
  • due to its hardness has exceptional ability to protect & support
  • more flexible than bone(also not as hard)
  • Types:
  • Hyaline Cartilage
    • matrix is glassy, blue-white
    • found: ends of long bones, larynx, fetal skeleton
  • Elastic Cartilage
    • external ear
  • Fibrocartilage
    • very compressible, forms discs in vertebral column
dense ct
Dense CT
  • matrix: collagen fibers main ingredient + fibroblasts (make collagen)
  • function: strength
  • found:
  • tendons
    • attach muscle to bone
  • Ligaments
    • connect bone to bone
dense ct1
Dense CT
  • Ligaments:
  • Tendons:
loose ct
Loose CT
  • softer, more cellular, fewer fibers than most other CT
  • Types:
  • Areolar CT
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Reticular CT
areolar ct
Areolar CT
  • “cobwebby”
  • diffusely distributed thru out body
  • layer under all mucous membranes (lamina propria)
  • Functions:
  • cushions & protects
  • holds things together
  • reservoir of water (where water held when injured area becomes edematous)
adipose tissue
Adipose Tissue
  • aka fat
  • adipocytes =fat cells
    • “signet ring”
  • found :
    • subcutaneous layer beneath skin
    • around kidneys, eyeballs
reticular ct
Reticular CT
  • reticular cells which make reticular fibers (finer than collagen)
  • forms: stroma: internal framework that supports ie. Stroma in lymph nodes support lymphocytes
  • blood cells in fluid matrix (plasma)
  • Function:
    • carries nutrients, gases, wastes, hormones etc. to/from cells
  • Plasma:
    • fibers: soluble proteins become visible during blood clotting
muscle tissue
Muscle Tissue
  • specialized to contract  produce motion
  • cells called muscle fibers
  • Types:
  • Skeletal
  • Cardiac
  • Smooth
skeletal muscle
Skeletal Muscle
  • striated & voluntary
  • most attached to bones
    • contraction causes bone to move
cardiac muscle
Cardiac Muscle
  • striated, involuntary
  • found only in the heart
  • cardiac muscle fibers have gaps between them (called intercalated discs) so conduction of nerve impulse is quicker
smooth muscle tissue
Smooth Muscle Tissue
  • no striations, involuntary
  • found: w/in tubes &hollow organs, iris
  • peristalsis: contractions of smooth muscle w/in esophagus large intestine
nervous tissue
Nervous Tissue
  • found in brain, spinal cord, nerves
  • nerve cells called neurons
  • irritability & conductivity
    • neurons receive & conduct nerve impulses
  • cells that support neurons
    • astrocytes
    • oligodendrocytes
    • ependymal cells
    • microglia
    • Schwann cells
    • satellite cells
wound healing
Wound Healing
  • Inflammation:
  • nonspecific, generalized response aimed at preventing further injury
  • Immune Response:
  • specific response aimed at specific invader
wound healing1
Wound Healing
  • Regeneration
    • replacement of destroyed tissue by same cells
    • repair appears like normal tissue
  • Fibrosis
    • repair by dense, fibrous CT
    • ?Regeneration or Fibrosis?
      • type of tissue
      • severity of injury
3 stages of tissue injury
3 Stages of Tissue Injury
  • Leaky Capillaries
  • clotting proteins enter injured area & form clot
  • bleeding stops & clot holds edges of wound together
  • clot protects injured area from contamination(infection, dirt)
  • clot dries  scab

2. Granulation Tissue Forms

  • is a delicate pink tissue
  • mostly capillaries (friable)
  • contains phagocytes (eat up clot & fibroblasts that synthesize collagen which forms scar)

3. Surface epithelium regenerates

  • grows from edges  center
  • scar depends on depth & severity of wound
regeneration varies by tissue type
Regeneration varies by tissue type
  • Regeneration goes well in epithelial tissues and fibrous CT & bone
  • Muscle regenerates poorly
  • Nervous tissue replaced by scar tissue
embryonic development of tissues
Embryonic Development of Tissues
  • 3 primary germ layers formed from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst (7-14 days after fertilization)
3 primary germ layers
3 Primary Germ Layers
  • Ectoderm  nervous system & epidermis
  • Endoderm mucosa & glands
  • Mesoderm  everything else
normal aging process
Normal Aging Process
  • uncertain what causes aging process to start
    • chemical or environmental insults
    • aging “clock”
tissue changes with aging
Tissue Changes with Aging
  • Epithelial: membranes thin, skin less elastic, glands secrete less
  • CT: bones porous, tissue repair slower
  • Muscle Tissue: muscles atrophy
  • Nervous Tissue: nervous tissue atrophies