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Chapter One

Chapter One

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Chapter One

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  1. Chapter One The Human body: An Orientation

  2. Anatomy is the study of the structure of the body parts and their relationships to each other. Deals with body parts. • Physiology is the study of the function of the body parts.

  3. Topics of Anatomy • Gross Anatomy is the study of structures large enough to be seen with the naked eye.

  4. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures that are too small to be seen with the naked eye. • Ex. • Cytology= the study of cells • Histology= the study of tissues

  5. Specialized Branches • 1. Pathology= The study of structural changes due to diseases. • 2. Radiology=The study of the body with the help of x-ray. • 3. Molecular biology= The study of molecular molecules.

  6. 4. Radiography (X-Rays)-the use of X-rays to produce images of the internal structures of the human body. This technique is excellent for discovering fractures; however, organs often appear as a blur on X-rays. 5. Computed Tomography Scanning (CT Scan)-the use of X-rays and computers to produce 3- dimensional images of body structures. It is used to detect kidney stones and tumors. • 6. Xenon CT-CT brain scan enhanced with Xenon gas which allows for tracing blood flow. This is used to identify strokes.

  7. 7. Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA)-an instrument used to examine blood vessels before and after a dye has been injected into the bloodstream. This is used to detect blocked blood vessels. • 8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)-the use of radioactive particles to produce images of internal organs. This can provide some indication of organ function as well as structure. • 9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-the use of radio waves and magnets to produce 3-dimensional images of internal structures. It is not used on pregnant women or individuals that have a pacemaker due to the use of magnets.

  8. 10. Dynamic Spatial Reconstruction(DSR)-specialized X-ray machine that produces 3-dimensional moving images of internal structures. This is excellent for examining the heart, blood vessels, and the lungs. • 11. Ultrasound-sound waves are forced into the body where they are reflected by various organs and tissues. These reflected sound waves are used to produce images of internal structures. • a. Sonogram-the images produced by an ultrasound. • b. These are often used to follow the development of a fetus during pregnancy.

  9. Word Bytes • -tomy = cutting • dorse = back • append = to hang • -stasis = standing still • cardi- = heart • pleur- = rib • cran = helmet

  10. pariet = wall • homeo = same • peri = around • nas = nose • orb = circle • meta = change • -logy = the study of • pelv = basin

  11. Medical Careers • Epidemiology • ActivitiesInvestigate and describe the causes and distribution of diseases, disabilities, and other health outcomes. They also develop methods of disease prevention and control. OutlookFaster-than-average-job growth Median Income$56,670 per year in 2006 Work Context & ConditionsUsually work indoors, in a laboratory or university. Accuracy and follow through are very important. Biological and medical scientists usually work regular hours in offices or laboratories and usually are not exposed to unsafe or unhealthy conditions. Minimum Education RequirementsMaster's DegreeSkillsCritical Thinking, Active Listening, Writing, Time Management, Mathematics, Active Learning, Complex Problem Solving, Reading Comprehension, Speaking, Science AbilitiesOral Expression, Deductive Reasoning, Problem Sensitivity, Written Comprehension, Inductive Reasoning, Written Expression, Oral Comprehension

  12. Nuclear Medicine • Nuclear medicine technologists operate cameras that detect and map the radioactive drug in a patient’s body to create diagnostic images. After explaining test procedures to patients, technologists prepare a dosage of the radiopharmaceutical and administer it by mouth, injection, inhalation, or other means. They position patients and start a gamma scintillation camera, or “scanner,” which creates images of the distribution of a radiopharmaceutical as it localizes in, and emits signals from, the patient’s body. The images are produced on a computer screen or on film for a physician to interpret.

  13. Levels of Structural Organization • 1. Atoms • 2. Molecules • 3. Cells • 4. Tissue • 5. Organ • 6. Organ System • 7. Organism

  14. How the Body is Made Up Body Systems Organs & Fluids Cells and Fluids Chemical Elements

  15. Chemical Elements • Smallest building blocks of life • What is the most important chemical element in bones? • Other facts: • Calcium – essential for bone strength • Iron – major component of blood cells • Silicon – growth and development of bones, cartilage and tissue

  16. The Periodic Table

  17. Water Molecule Just like body systems, chemical elements have to work together. Oxygen and Hydrogen combine or work together to make a water molecule.

  18. The body is made up of… …Chemical elements, which bond together to form… …Cells, which come together to form… …Organs, which work together to create… …Body systems… …Which in turn is the HUMAN BODY

  19. Overview The human Body Body Parts Chemical Elements Organs Cells Fluids Work together to form: BODY SYSTEM Our body systems work together to keep us healthy and help us live

  20. Internal Body Parts (Organs)

  21. Maintaining Life • A. Necessary Life functions • 1. Maintain separate internal and external boundaries. • 2. Movement. • 3. Responsiveness. • A. Seek water for thirst • B. Move hand from hot stove. • 4. Digestion.

  22. 5. Metabolism. • Obtaining energy from food and assimilating new molecules • 6. Excretion. • A. Rid body of toxic waste. • 7. Reproduction. • 8. Growth. • 9. Respiration • A. Using O2 to release energy from food.

  23. B. Survival Needs • 1. Nutrients needed for chemical reactions used for energy and cell building. • 2. Oxygen needed for breakdown of glucose. • 3. Water needed for secretions, excretions, metabolism, and transport. • Most abundant substance in body. • 4. Normal body temperature needed for chemical reactions. • Heat=The product of metabolic processes • 5. Pressure: needed for gas exchange in the lungs (atmospheric pressure), and blood pressure.

  24. Homeostasis • A. Homeostasis=The ability of the body to maintain a constant internal environment, regardless of environmental changes. • 1. Each cell of the body is surrounded by a small amount of fluid, and the normal functions of each cell depend on the maintenance of its fluid environment with in a narrow range of conditions. • 2. Conditions are called variables. (values that change) • A. Ex. Body temperature

  25. B. Components: • 1. Variable: The factor or event that can change. • 2. Receptor: Structure that monitors changes in the environment and sends info to control center. • 3. Control center: Structures that determines the set point for a variable, analyzes input, and coordinates an appropriate response. • 4. Effector: Structures that carries out the response directed by the control center.

  26. Example of homeostasis: 1. The excretory system makes sure that toxins are not surrounding a cell. It will make sure it is taken away through the blood stream to the kidneys to be filtered and exit the body. 2. Disruption of this process can result in disease or death.

  27. C. Negative feedback: • 1. Most homeostatic controls are negative feedback. • 2. Changes in a way that causes the initial factor to change (opposite). • 3. Usually the nervous and endocrine systems are involved in negative feedback mechanisms. • 4. the purpose is to prevent sudden, severe changes in the body. • 5. End result=body corrects condition that is occurring

  28. D. An example of negative feedback: • Too cold=body shivers, muscles contract, vessels constrict. • Too hot=body sweats, vessels dilate, fast heart beat. • Too much sugar in blood=body produces insulin, insulin breaks down sugar. • Too little sugar in blood=body produces glucagon, triggers liver to break up long starch molecules into sugar that go back into bloodstream.

  29. D. Positive feedback • 1. Causes a change in the same direction as the original change. Ex: Childbirth

  30. Ex. Of Positive Feedback = blood clotting

  31. Ex. Of Postive feedback = arthritis, lupus. • 1. The immune system works too good and healthy tissue is destroyed.

  32. The language of Anatomy • A. Anatomical Position • 1. Frontal Plane=Separates front and back. • 2. Sagittal Plane=Separates left from right. • 3. Transverse plane=Separates top from bottom. • 4. Oblique section – cuts made diagonally

  33. Directional Terms • 4. Anterior= Ventral=front • 5. Posterior= Dorsal= Back • 6. Lateral=The sides • 7. Medial=Middle

  34. Relative Positions • 1. proximal= nearest to body attachment • Closer to the origin of the body or point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. • Ex. The elbow is proximal to the wrist. • 2. distal= furthest from body attachment • Further from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk. • Ex. The knee is distal to the thigh.

  35. 3. superficial=toward the surface • Ex. The skin is superficial to the muscle. • 4. deep= toward the core of the body • Ex. The lungs are deep to the skin.

  36. 5. prone=lie face down • 6. supine=lie face up • Remember this by saying: “soup in navel”

  37. 7. Superior=above • Toward the head or upper part of the body. • Ex. The head is superior to the abdomen • 8. Inferior=below • Away from the head or toward the lower part of the body. • Ex. The navel is inferior to the chin.

  38. 9. Anterior=Ventral • Toward the front of the body. • Ex. The breastbone is anterior to the spine. • 10. Posterior=Dorsal • Toward or at the back of the body; behind. • Ex. The heart is posterior to the breastbone.

  39. True or False • 1. The mouth is superior to the nose. • 2. The stomach is inferior to the diaphragm. • 3. The trachea is anterior to the spinal cord. • 4. The heart is medial to the lungs. • 5. The hand is proximal to the elbow. • 6. Blood in deep blood vessels give color to the skin.

  40. Answers • 1. F • 2. T • 3. T • 4. T • 5. F • 6. F

  41. Quiz on relative positions: • 1. The elbow is _________ to the fingers. • 2. The sternum is _______ to the ribs. • 3. The feet are ________ to the head. • 4. The wrist is ________ to the shoulder. • 5. The stomach is more _______ then your skin. • 6. The eyes are ______ to your nose. • 7. the neck is _______ to the hips. • 8. the skin is ___________ to the fat layer.

  42. Answers: • 1. proximal • 2. medial • 3. inferior • 4. distal • 5. deep • 6. lateral • 7. superior • 8. superficial

  43. Where will you find the following afflictions? • 1. carpal tunnel syndrome • 2. bucal abcess • 3. digital dislocation • 4. mammary tumor • 5. nasal hemorrhage • 6. abdominal cancer • 7. sacral fracture

  44. Answers • 1. wrist • 2. cheek • 3. finger • 4. breast • 5. nose • 6. stomach • 7. tailbone

  45. B. Regions: • 1. Axial= includes the head, neck and trunk. • 2. Appendicular= consists of the upper and lower limbs.