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Sensory, Nervous, and Endocrine Disorders

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  1. Sensory, Nervous, and Endocrine Disorders Chapter 17

  2. Eye Disorders Structure of the Eye: • Sclera • Cornea • Uvea • Choroid ciliary body, iris • Retina

  3. Eye Disorders cont. Refractive Errors: • Myopia • nearsighted • Hyperopia • farsighted • Presbyopia • Focusing diffiuclty • Astigmatism • Unequal cornea or lens curvature

  4. Eye Disorders cont. Cataract: • Predisposing Factors • A result of aging • Persons over 70 • Injury to lens • Genetic defect • Symptoms • Blurring and loss of vision • Halos around lights • Prevention • Prepubertal vaccination for rubella • Eye safety • Treatment • Surgery

  5. Eye Disorders cont. Glaucoma: • Predisposing Factors • Inherited • Result of another eye disease • Symptoms • Asymptomatic initially • Mild aching • Halos around lights • Loss of peripheral vision • Prevention • Regular eye examinations • Treatment • Drugs, eye drops

  6. Ear Disorders Hearing Loss: • Predisposing Factors • Conductive • Chronic middle ear infection • Cerumen blocking outer ear canal • Stapes loss of mobility • Eardrum damage (air pressure changes) • Perforated eardrum • Sensorineural • Developing fetus damage or birth injury • Extended exposure to loud noise • Streptomycin • Viral infection • Degeneration • Tumor

  7. Ear Disorders cont. Hearing Loss: • Symptoms • Children will not turn their head to sounds • Ringing in the ears • Sounds become quieter • Certain letters cannot be heard (s, f, z) • Prevention • Avoid loud noise • Wear protective devices • Periodic hearing tests • Treatment • Depends on underlying cause • Operation • Self healing • Hearing aids

  8. Predisposing Factors Unknown Anatomic abnormality Heredity Immunologic, viral, vascular, metabolic, psychologic factors Symptoms Severe tinnitis and dizziness Nausea, vomiting, sweating Ear pressure or pain Prevention Unknown Treatment Atropine Diuretics or a vasodilator Salt restriction Antihistamines Ear Disorders cont. Ménière’s Disease:

  9. Nervous System Disorders Cerebral Palsy: Spastic - Athetoid - Ataxic • Predisposing factors • Any condition during pregnancy resulting in brain damage • Measles, diabetes, malnutrition • Prolonged labor, forceps delivery, anesthetic, reduced oxygen supply • Infant or childhood head trauma, brain infection or brain tumor

  10. Symptoms Spastic (70%) Excessive muscle contractions Muscle weakness Underdeveloped body parts Walks on toes with scissor like movements Athetoid (20%) Difficulty controlling arm, leg and facial muscles Ataxic (10%) Difficulty with balance Fall frequently Mental retardation Speech difficulties Seizure disorders Nervous System Disorders cont. Cerebral Palsy:

  11. Nervous System Disorders Cerebral Palsy: • Primary Prevention • Careful monitoring of mother during pregnancy • Proper precautions when using forceps and anesthetic during childbirth • Secondary Prevention • Assessment and observation of infants • Routine screening at 6-months • Treatment • No cure • Anticonvulsants • Braces • Exercises • Speech therapy

  12. Seizure disorder Disturbance of electrical patterns in the brain Predisposing Factors Abnormality in brain chemistry Head injury Birth trauma Brain tumor Infections diseases Metabolic disorders Symptoms Recurring seizures Prevention unknown Treatment Drug therapy Surgery Nervous System Disorders Epilepsy:

  13. Deterioration continues for an average of 10 years Predisposing Factors Cause is unknown Dopamine deficiency Symptoms Inability to control muscle movement Insidious tremor Prevention unknown Treatment No cure Drugs, physical therapy surgery Nervous System Disorders Parkinson’s Disease:

  14. Major cause on disability in young adults. Predisposing Factors Cause is unknown Family history Cold, damp climate Other suspected factors: Slow moving virus Emotional stress Nutritional deficiencies Trauma Overwork Acute respiratory Symptoms Problems with sensory organs Numbness, tingling sensations Muscle weakness Long periods of remission Prevention unknown Treatment Drugs to reduce severity of symptoms Nervous System Disorders Multiple Sclerosis:

  15. Degenerative disease of the brain. Predisposing Factors Cause is unknown Suspected factors Deficiencies in neurotransmitters Exposure to aluminum Slow moving viruses Trauma Genetic immunologic factors Symptoms Stage 1 Awareness of increasing forgetfulness Stage 2 Severe memory loss and disorientation Personality and sudden mood changes Stage 3 More severe onset of stage 2 symptoms Possible violent behavior Require constant care Prevention unknown Treatment Tranquilizers Antidepressants Nervous System Disorders Alzheimer’s Disease:

  16. Endocrine Disorders Diabetes Mellitus: Abnormal metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Results in increased levels of blood sugar. One of the 10 leading causes of death from disease in the U.S.

  17. Type I “Juvenile onset” Predisposing Factors Cause is unknown Possible hereditary factor Symptoms Abrupt onset Dramatic weight loss Reversion to bedwetting Frequent urination Excessive thirst Vaginal itching Prevention unknown Treatment Diet Exercise Insulin Self-testing Nervous System Disorders Diabetes Mellitus:

  18. Type II “Adult onset” Predisposing Factors Obesity Sedentary lifestyle Symptoms Maybe asymptomatic Gradual onset Frequent urination Blurred vision Vaginal itching Prevention Weight maintenance Regular exercise Stress management Treatment Diet Exercise Self-testing Oral hypoglycemics Nervous System Disorders Diabetes Mellitus: