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Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Photosynthesis

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  1. Photosynthesis • Capture of light energy in photosynthesis • Building up the the proton-motive force • Synthesis of ATP in mitochondria and chloroplasts Key topics:

  2. Energy of Light is Used to Synthesize ATP in Photosynthetic Organisms • Light causes charge separation between a pair chlorophyll molecules • Energy of the oxidized and reduced chlorophyll molecules is used drive synthesis of ATP • Water is the source of electrons that are passed via a chain of transporters to the ultimate electron acceptor, NADP+ • Oxygen is the byproduct of water oxidation

  3. Chemiosmotic Theory • How to make an unfavorable ADP + Pi = ATP possible? • Phosphorylation of ADP is not a result of a direct reaction between ADP and some high energy phosphate carrier • Energy needed to phosphorylate ADP is provided by the flow of protons down the electrochemical gradient • The electrochemical gradient is established by transporting protons against the electrochemical gradient during the electron transport

  4. Chemiosmotic Energy Coupling Requires Membranes • The proton gradient needed for ATP synthesis can be stably established across a topologically closed membrane • Plasma membrane in bacteria • Cristae membrane in mitochondria • Thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts • Membrane must contain proteins that couple the “downhill” flow of electrons in the electron transfer chain with the “uphill” flow of protons across the membrane • Membrane must contain a protein that couples the “downhill” flow of proton to the phosphorylation of ADP

  5. Light Energy is Converted to ATP in Chloroplasts • Found in plants and some algae • Membrane enclosed organelle • Light capture takes place on thylakoid membranes • Thylakoids stack into grana • Space around grana is called stroma

  6. Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis: • Solar energy is captured by • pigments on thylakoid membranes • Light energy used to set up a proton gradient • Proton gradient energy is used to synthesize ATP • ATP energy is used to assimilate CO2 into sugars

  7. Pigments Harvest the Light Energy The energy is transferred to the photosynthetic reaction center

  8. Photosynthetic Unit in Bacteria • LH-II collects energy and funnels it to LH-1 • LH-I initiates charge separation

  9. Organization of the Light-Harvesting Complex • LHC is a membrane-associated structure • Reaction Center (RC) in the middle • Light-harvesting pigments around it

  10. Light-Induced Redox Reactions and Electron Transfer Acidify the Lumen The proton-motive force across the thylakoid membrane drives the synthesis of ATP

  11. Coenzyme Q or Ubiquinone • Ubiquinone is a lipid-soluble conjugated dicarbonyl compound that readily accepts electrons • Upon accepting two electrons, it picks up two protons to give an alcohol, ubiquinol • Ubiquinol can freely diffuse in the membrane, carrying electronswith protons from one side of the membrane to another side

  12. Summary of Photosynthesis

  13. Flow of Protons: Mitochondria, Chloroplasts, Bacteria • According to endosymbiotic theory, mitochondria and chloroplasts arose from entrapped bacteria • Bacterial cytosol became mitochondrial matrix and chloroplast stroma

  14. Photosynthesis: Summary We learned that: • The energy of sunlight creates charge separation in the photosynthetic reaction complex • Stepwise electron transport is accompanied by the directional transport of protons across the membrane against their concentration gradient • The energy in the electrochemical proton gradient drives synthesis of ATP by coupling the flow of protons via ATP synthase to conformational changes that favor formation of ATP in the active site