Unit III - Review 600-1450. 600-1450 C.E. 1368. Founding of Tenochtitlan ( Aztecs ). 618. Marco Polo visits China. 1325. 960. 1096. 622. Swahili Trade Cities. Song Dynasty. Mali Empire. Ming Dynasty. Crusades. The hijra. Tang Dynasty. Rise of Islam. Axum Kingdom.
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Founding of Tenochtitlan (Aztecs)
Marco Polo visits
Swahili Trade Cities
Rise of Islam
Rise of Ottoman
The Great Schism
Hundred Years’ War
The Islamic religion was formed in the Arabian Peninsula during the 7th century.
The Bedouins, a nomadic people that “populated” the Arabian Peninsula, virtually controlled trade in the desert and founded Islam in Mecca.
Mecca was both a trade and a religious center for both Judaism and Islam.
Muhammad was a tradesman who founded the Islamic religion in Mecca.
Muhammad was very religious and often found time to meditate. According to legend, the angel Gabriel told him that he was a messenger of God.
Muhammad believed he was the last prophet of Allah and began to speak of Islam.
He renamed Yathrib “Medina” or “city of the Prophet” and named the community of Muslims umma.
The Black Stone in Mecca became known as the belief in one god.
Muhammad died in 632 CE known as the “seal of the prophets” since he was the last one.
Faith (Shahadah) - Declaration of Faith is repeated every day
Prayer (salat) - Face Mecca and pray five times a day
Alms (Zakat) - Give money to the poor through alms tax
Fasting (Sawm) - During Ramadan they must fast from sunrise to sundown
Pilgrimage (Hajj) – Make pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca, takes place once a year at Ka’aba.
The government set up was the caliphate that was ruled by a caliph selected by umma.
The Qur’an was the guide of the caliphs.
Muslim armies, weak Byzantine and Persian empires, and the good treatment of those conquered all were factors to the spread of Islam during the 7th and 8th centuries.
Sunni – Umayyad rule; the caliph should still be selected by the Muslim community. Sunni means “the followers of Muhammad’s example.”
Shi’a – caliph should be a relative of the Prophet and rejected Umayyad rule. They seek the revenge for Ali’s death. Shi’a means “the party of Ali.”
Women had right to property, divorce, and business. The Qur’an emphasizes equality but there are reinforced male dominance beliefs in Islam. Men follow Muhammad’s example of 4 wives while women may only have one husband. Women have been wearing veils since the 13th century B.C.E. in Mesopotamia; these practices were adopted by Islam.
Educational institutions were built to help spread the culture and beliefs of the Islamic religion. They also promoted the increase of science and technology.
When Persia became part of the caliphate, Muslims adopted their culture, language, and arts. They also adopted mathematics and Arabic numerals in India.
A mamluk was a captured man that became a soldier who served the Muslim caliphs and Abbasid sultans in the Middle Ages. They were the lowest class and were kept under strict control by their caliph. They often tried to become powerful military castes to seize power for themselves but were punished cruelly. They were very beneficial to the armies because they knew they must honor their caliph.
-advanced road systems
-stables for travelers
-used the roads to send messages by horse to keep in contact with the large empire.
-Meant to make sure that land distribution was fair and equal.
-The emperor wanted to control the amount of land the families had.
A merit-based bureaucracy:
-recruited government officials who were smart, educated, and loyal to their job.
-expansion of the empire meant that expenses went up.
-The government then started to raise taxes making the people of the empire angry.
-China had many invasions, so they depended on a strong military.
-The military was eventually overthrown and Song China was under Mongolian control.
The Tang built road systems, post stations, and sent messengers to communicate with the rest of the dynasty. The Grand Canal made it possible for China to increase trade and communication.
Bureaucratic systems were based on merit not on money or class.
Increased agriculture production, population, urbanization, technological innovations, and financial inventions all were factors of the flourishing economy during the Golden Age.
The dominance of males increased with the increase of productivity. Women began to bind their feet to let others know they were wealthy and did not need to work for their husbands could work.
Males continued to dominate most aspects of society while the women returned to traditional housework.
Aztecs (The place of the seven legendary caves)
Originally named the Mexica
Settled in an unusual place: an island in the middle of a swampland of Lake Texococo, later built to become Mexico city
Established city of Tenochtitlan, and expanded by conquering nearby people and using them for tribute
By the middle of the 15th century their territory was almost coast to coast
Expanded their territory by conquering other people around them
Used brute force to defeat their opponents
Began to move when they needed new pastures for their herds
Also thought that a drought had started the migration
Skilled horsemanship lead to successful migration