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Unit III - Review 600-1450. 600-1450 C.E. 1368. Founding of Tenochtitlan ( Aztecs ). 618. Marco Polo visits China. 1325. 960. 1096. 622. Swahili Trade Cities. Song Dynasty. Mali Empire. Ming Dynasty. Crusades. The hijra. Tang Dynasty. Rise of Islam. Axum Kingdom.

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600-1450 C.E.


Founding of Tenochtitlan (Aztecs)


Marco Polo visits






Swahili Trade Cities



Mali Empire

Ming Dynasty


The hijra

Tang Dynasty

Rise of Islam

Axum Kingdom

Rise of Ottoman


Ghana Kingdom

Kongo Kingdom

Abbasid Dynasty

Delhi Sultanate

The Great Schism

Hundred Years’ War







a new world of islam
A New World of Islam

The Islamic religion was formed in the Arabian Peninsula during the 7th century.

The Bedouins, a nomadic people that “populated” the Arabian Peninsula, virtually controlled trade in the desert and founded Islam in Mecca.

Mecca was both a trade and a religious center for both Judaism and Islam.


Muhammad was a tradesman who founded the Islamic religion in Mecca.

Muhammad was very religious and often found time to meditate. According to legend, the angel Gabriel told him that he was a messenger of God.

Muhammad believed he was the last prophet of Allah and began to speak of Islam.

Muhammad’s flee from Mecca to Yathrib in 622 CE became known as Hijrah, the official founding date of Islam.

He renamed Yathrib “Medina” or “city of the Prophet” and named the community of Muslims umma.

The Black Stone in Mecca became known as the belief in one god.

Muhammad died in 632 CE known as the “seal of the prophets” since he was the last one.

the five pillars
The Five Pillars

Faith (Shahadah) - Declaration of Faith is repeated every day

Prayer (salat) - Face Mecca and pray five times a day

Alms (Zakat) - Give money to the poor through alms tax

Fasting (Sawm) - During Ramadan they must fast from sunrise to sundown

Pilgrimage (Hajj) – Make pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime. Hajj, pilgrimage to Mecca, takes place once a year at Ka’aba.

islamic structure
Islamic Structure

The government set up was the caliphate that was ruled by a caliph selected by umma.

The Qur’an was the guide of the caliphs.

Muslim armies, weak Byzantine and Persian empires, and the good treatment of those conquered all were factors to the spread of Islam during the 7th and 8th centuries.

sunni shi a split
Sunni-Shi’a Split

Sunni – Umayyad rule; the caliph should still be selected by the Muslim community. Sunni means “the followers of Muhammad’s example.”

Shi’a – caliph should be a relative of the Prophet and rejected Umayyad rule. They seek the revenge for Ali’s death. Shi’a means “the party of Ali.”

society and women s status
Society and Women’s Status

Women had right to property, divorce, and business. The Qur’an emphasizes equality but there are reinforced male dominance beliefs in Islam. Men follow Muhammad’s example of 4 wives while women may only have one husband. Women have been wearing veils since the 13th century B.C.E. in Mesopotamia; these practices were adopted by Islam.

arts sciences and technology
Arts, Sciences, and Technology

Educational institutions were built to help spread the culture and beliefs of the Islamic religion. They also promoted the increase of science and technology.

When Persia became part of the caliphate, Muslims adopted their culture, language, and arts. They also adopted mathematics and Arabic numerals in India.


A mamluk was a captured man that became a soldier who served the Muslim caliphs and Abbasid sultans in the Middle Ages. They were the lowest class and were kept under strict control by their caliph. They often tried to become powerful military castes to seize power for themselves but were punished cruelly. They were very beneficial to the armies because they knew they must honor their caliph.

silk road trade
Silk Road Trade
  • Best known trading route for the ancient Chinese civilization.
  • Trade in silk grew under the Han Dynasty.
  • Chan Ch'ien was the first known Chinese traveler who made contact with Central Asian tribes.
    • Chan Ch’ien expanded the silk trade to include less tribes, therefore creating alliances with Central Asian nomads. With his brilliant idea, the Silk Road was created.
indian ocean trade
Indian Ocean Trade
  • City-states traded with inland kingdoms to obtain gold, ivory, and iron which were scarce and valuable items in Asian countries. These items were used for jewelry, coins, works of art, and ornamentation on buildings
  • Africa played a vital role in world economy even before European nations.
  • City-states were willing to pay high prices for cotton, silk, and porcelain objects. These items were expensive because they weren't available in Africa at the time. These items were a majority of Africa's imports during the Indian Ocean Trade.
trans sahara
  • Trade was associated with Mediterranean economies that demanded gold in exchange for salt.
  • Trans-Saharan routes went around Audaghost, expanding and going toward the Bure goldfield.
    • Begins in India with the migration of Aryans.
    • Development of Buddhism and Jainism as alternates to Hinduism causes some changes in Hinduism’s teachings.
    • Moved from Mesopotamia into Eastern Mediterranean.
      • Exiled by Romans.
      • Exiled by Assyrians
    • Christianity develops to Judaism as an alternative in the Roman Empire.
    • Practiced in China
      • Philosophy spreads to Korea
    • Legalism looks down on Confucianism.
      • Daoism Coexists with Confucianism.
    • Starts in South Asia and is spread by missionaries and merchants.
    • Hinduism changes to make Buddhism less appealing.
    • Spread by apostles and disciples.
    • First just converts the spreading of news.
      • More formal spread by Romans.
      • Adoption of many pagan customs.
    • Judaism influenced with their laws, rules, and beliefs.
    • Zoroastrianism influenced with their belief of good and evil.
    • Starts in Arabia (Mecca and Medina).
      • Islam spreads to Europe and West Africa in the 900s and Swahili states in 1100s.
      • Muhammad was greatly influenced by Christianity and Judaism.
  • This group swept through the south and east of Asia
  • They conquered China, India, the Middle East, and Russia.
  • They ruled the largest land-based empire of the world
  • Their attacks often destroyed cities and towns, but they maintained trade routes.
  • Their authority eventually brought peace. (PaxMongolica)
importance cont
Importance cont.
  • It spread other cultures throughout the land
  • Improved trade throughout Asia and eastern Europe
  • Paper money, banking, and letters of credit
  • Peace spread throughout the area once land was conquered.
rise of mongolian power
Rise of Mongolian Power
  • The Mongols originated in dry grasslands in the central part of Asia.
  • They raised livestock and were organized in groups called clans.
  • Their spread throughout the land started as they looked for new pastures for their herds.
  • in 1200 CE, Temujin brought all clans together under his power.
rise of mongolian power cont
Rise of Mongolian Power cont.
  • He eventually became Genghis Khan, or “universal leader.”
  • After his death, his sons and grandsons took over and kept his authority streak and conquered the desired area for the empire.
  • Ogodai, Genghis Khan’s son, died and the Mongols were then stopped in Eurasia.
  • Egypt’s army defeated the Mongols and the Mongol leader, Hulegu, decided not to conquer anymore land.
  • The Empire fell mostly because the land was too big to control and because it was divided.
east asia political systems and cultural patterns1
East Asia Political Systems and Cultural Patterns
  • China
    • Influenced areas around it such as Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
    • Sui dynasty built canal linking northern & southern China
    • Tang dynasty distributed land to peasants
    • Invented printing (woodblock printing)
    • Chinese imperial court set up trade and diplomatic relations with the states of Southeast Asia
    • Rulers unable to prevent plotting against and government corruption
    • Female children were considered less desirable than male children
    • When married, the girls parents would provide a dowry or gift to her husband.
  • Confucianism
    • Was the basis of the state government
    • Now called Neo-Confucianism (response to Buddhism and Daoism)
    • World is real not an illusion, you must participate in order to enjoy the world
tang china
Tang China
  • They had a strong transportation and communication system:

-advanced road systems

-postal stations

-stables for travelers

-used the roads to send messages by horse to keep in contact with the large empire.

tang china cont
Tang China cont.
  • The equal-field system:

-Meant to make sure that land distribution was fair and equal.

-The emperor wanted to control the amount of land the families had.

A merit-based bureaucracy:

-recruited government officials who were smart, educated, and loyal to their job.

song china
Song China
  • Finances

-expansion of the empire meant that expenses went up.

-The government then started to raise taxes making the people of the empire angry.

  • Military:

-China had many invasions, so they depended on a strong military.

song china cont
Song China cont.

-The military was eventually overthrown and Song China was under Mongolian control.

  • Trade routes along the roads of china made for economic growth.
japanese vs european feudalism


  • Feudalistic ties based on one’s word
  • Legacy: group consciousness, collective decision-making teams
  • Feudalistic ties sealed by negotiated contracts
  • Legacy: reliance on parliamentary institutions where participants could discuss concerns about monarch
Japanese vs. European Feudalism
  • Similarities
    • Mutual ties and obligations
    • Valued courage, loyalty, contempt for non-warriors
the golden age
The Golden Age

The Tang built road systems, post stations, and sent messengers to communicate with the rest of the dynasty. The Grand Canal made it possible for China to increase trade and communication.

Bureaucratic systems were based on merit not on money or class.

Increased agriculture production, population, urbanization, technological innovations, and financial inventions all were factors of the flourishing economy during the Golden Age.

religious conflicts
Religious Conflicts
  • During the Tang and Song Dynasties, Buddhist and Confucius ideals created much conflict in government and society.
    • Confucianism emphasizes the duty owed to society, order, and hierarchy.
    • Buddhism emphasizes the withdrawal from society to focus on the individual.
  • The emergence of Neo-Confucianism merged the two religious ideals together to make a more successful society and political structure.
the patriarchal way of life
The Patriarchal Way of Life

The dominance of males increased with the increase of productivity. Women began to bind their feet to let others know they were wealthy and did not need to work for their husbands could work.

Males continued to dominate most aspects of society while the women returned to traditional housework.

the mongols yuan dynasty and the ming
The Mongols, Yuan Dynasty, and the Ming
  • Kublai Khan conquered the Song and established the capital of Beijing and the Yuan Dynasty.
  • Militarism rose as the Yuan Dynasty rose; merchants status was improved and more territory was gained.
  • The Ming closed all relations with the Mongols (Yuan), making the Ming “independent from the world.”
  • Maya
    • City-states
    • Agriculture basis for life
    • United by loyalty to king
    • Complex calendars, math, astronomy
  • Decline
    • Conflict between states, disrupted trade, over-farming
  • Aztec
    • United by loyalty to king
    • Military conquest
    • Human sacrifice
  • Inca
    • United by loyalty to king
    • Major roads connected empire
    • Welfare state cared for everyone
decentralization of europe
Decentralization of Europe
  • Fall of Rome = political void
  • Germanic tribes create their own kingdoms
  • Europe divided
  • Unsafe to travel
    • Decrease in trade and exports
division of christianity
Division of Christianity
  • Shift of power from Rome to Byzantium
    • Lack of contact, beliefs differed
  • Differences were irreconcilable—1054 schism
  • Eastern Orthodox Church
  • Roman Catholic Church (west)
  • Papacy
    • Leader of Catholic Church
medieval society
Medieval Society
  • Feudalism—Political
    • Lords/vassals, loyalty for land, system of gov’t and landholding
  • Manors—Economic
    • Lord’s estate, self-sufficient, obligations between serfs and lords
  • The Church—Belief System
    • Unifying force, power over everyday lives
  • Chivalry—Code of Behavior
    • Courage, devotion to feudal and heavenly lord, respect for women
arts sciences technology
Arts, Sciences, Technology
  • Agricultural techniques
    • More food
    • Increased population
  • Improvements in technology led to later Age of Exploration
  • Castles, siege towers
revival of cities
Revival of Cities
  • Increased trade, population, crop production
  • Villages became towns
  • Expansion of markets
  • The church forbade loans, people went to Jewish moneylenders
crusades late 11 th 13 th centuries
Crusades-Late 11th-13th Centuries
  • Byzantine emperor calls Pope for help from Muslim invasions
  • European knights to help
  • No permanent gains for Christians
  • Muslims get Constantinople (Istanbul)
  • Trade with Middle East = new wealth
    • European demand for foreign products
    • Cultural change!
Western Europe

Eastern Europe

  • Byzantine Empire
  • Constantine
  • Justinian’s Code
    • Systemized Roman law
    • Basis of law in western Europe and United States
  • Frankish Empire
  • Charlemagne
    • Reunited western Europe
  • Holy Roman Empire
    • Emperors clashed with popes
empire of ghana
Empire of Ghana
  • In the 8th century, the Soninke, a farming people, formed the empire of Ghana.
  • The empire was gaining wealth through taxing traders who went through Ghana.
  • Their most important asset was gold from the Niger River. They traded it for salt from the Sahara.
  • Ghana had a good army, so the empire thrived.
  • Most of Ghana converted to Islam.
impact of migrations
Impact of migrations

Aztecs (The place of the seven legendary caves)

Originally named the Mexica

Settled in an unusual place: an island in the middle of a swampland of Lake Texococo, later built to become Mexico city

Established city of Tenochtitlan, and expanded by conquering nearby people and using them for tribute

By the middle of the 15th century their territory was almost coast to coast


Expanded their territory by conquering other people around them

Used brute force to defeat their opponents

Began to move when they needed new pastures for their herds

Also thought that a drought had started the migration

Skilled horsemanship lead to successful migration

impact of migrations1
Impact of Migrations
  • Turks
    • Originally Indo-Europeans who migrated into the Middle East
    • Seljuk Turks invaded Byzantine Empire, sparking migration from Europe to middle East
    • By end of era Ottoman Turks were on the rise
    • Captured Constantinople and they gained control of trade on the Mediterranean
  • Vikings
    • Vikings swept from Normandy (Europe), to Mediterranean areas (Russia) during the 8th and 9th centuries
    • looting and destroying communities, churches, and monasteries. Some settled and intermarried with natives, forming new groups such as the Normans and the Rus (Russians)
impact of migrations2
Impact of Migrations
    • Vikings
      • Consequence of their invasions was development of feudalism in Europe.
      • The attacks convinced Europeans that protection was vital, and so they organized into a network of lords and vassals, that eventually built kingdoms with great armies ready to fight.
  • Arabs
    • Most significant effect of the Arab movement from the Arabian Peninsula was the spread of Islam
    • Invaded, settled, and eventually ruled, the Middle East, northern Africa, and southern Europe
    • Political structure of the caliphate did not survive, Islam held the areas together culturally as it mixed with natively customs and religions.
    • Despite splits between Sunni and Shi'a, the Islamic World emerged as an entire cultural area during this era
migration of arabs
Migration of Arabs
  • During the 11th century, a large amount of Arabs migrated to Africa. Because of that, the Islamic religion and Arabic traditions dispersed deeper into Africa.
  • Islam also spread towards the Mali, then Songhai empires. Timbuktu became known for being the center of Islamic scholarships for its university.
east asia political systems and cultural patterns2
East Asia Political Systems and Cultural Patterns
  • Arts
    • Landscape painting reached its high point
    • People were insignificant, painted as tiny figures in boats or wandering up a hill, living in, but not dominating nature
    • Porcelain became very popular
    • A ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures
    • Europe did not find out about this technique until the eighteenth century
    • Japan based their government on the chinese
    • Limit power of aristocrats and empower the ruler, making him look like a divine figure
causes effects of the 14 th century plague
Causes/Effects of the 14th Century Plague
  • Black Death
  • Southwestern China
  • Cross-cultural exchanges-goods, ideas, disease
  • Mongol military campaigns
  • Fleas, merchants, travelers
  • Decline in population
    • Yuan Dynasty, Mongol control, ¼ Europe
  • Labor shortages
    • Trade standstill, deterioration of towns, social unrest, rebellions
growth and role of cities
Growth and Role of Cities
  • Africa
    • Mali (1200-1500) wealth derives from trade, gold fields of Niger; strong Muslim political and merchant classes
    • Building of Quranic school; Ibn Battuta (1304-1369)
    • Swahili Coast; farming, cattle herding, gold trade
    • Mosques and churches lead to worship and education
    • Islam increases in literacy, first in Arabic;
    • Growth of elite classes
    • Slave trade across Africa into Middle East, India, China
    • Most slaves specialize in service, some slaves become powerful and wealthy because of their military ability
growth and role of cities1
Growth and Role of Cities
  • The Song Empire
    • (Capital) Kaifeng, military has over one million men
    • iron and steel production rivals eighteenth century Britain
    • experiments with gunpowder; paper money, tax farming, modern private capitalism
    • Movable type leads to spreading of agricultural techniques, educational resources, public-health materials (combat malaria and plague);
    • women did not have property rights or ability to remarry and rarely had educational opportunities
growth and role of cities2
Growth and Role of Cities
  • The Aztecs (Tenochtitlan)
    • Move to islands off the shore of Lake Texcoco; organized by clan; 
    • Society based on military conquest 
    • Take fertile agricultural lands and establish monarchy selected by council of aristocrats from among all the males of ruling family
    • Warrior elite was assigned highest social status 
    • Lake Texcoco separates fresh water from salt water;
    • Great social division based on wealth 
    • Managed long-distance trade
    • Polytheistic, Huitzilopochtli (God) needs constant diet of human hearts to keep sun shining; worship of sun;
    • Sacrifice increases under Aztecs; war captives, criminals, slaves, people given as tribute
    • Rebellion, deviancy, opposition will not be tolerated