Mid-term Review 600-1450. What was bedouin society?. Bedouin society was made up of nomadic peoples who migrated through the deserts to find grass and water for their animals. The Bedouin organized themselves in family and clan groups.
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Bedouin society was made up of nomadic peoples who migrated through the deserts to find grass and water for their animals.
The Bedouin organized themselves in family and clan groups.
Individuals and their immediate families depended heavily on their larger kinship networks for support.
Because the Arabian desert was such a harsh environment to live, cooperation with kin often made the difference between death and survival.
Bedouin people developed a strong sense of loyalty to their clans.
Clan identities and loyalties survived for centuries after the appearance of Islam.
Swahili dominated east African coast from Mogadishu to Sofala
Spoke Swahili, a Bantu language, supplemented with some Arabic words
Trade with Muslim merchants became important by the tenth century
The Swahili city-states chiefs gained power through taxing trade on ports
Ports developed into city-states governed by kings, eleventh and twelfth centuries
Kilwa: good example of busy city-state on east coast; exported gold
Zimbabwe was powerful kingdom of east Africa
By the ninth century, chiefs began to build stone residences (Zimbabwe)
Magnificent stone complex known as Great Zimbabwe in the twelfth century
Eighteen thousand people lived in Great Zimbabwe in the late fifteenth century
Kings organized flow of gold, ivory, and slaves
The eastern Roman Empire, centered in Constantinople, became the highly centralized government known as the Byzantine Empire; whereas in the west, the empire collapsed.
The Byzantine Empire was a lot more centralized and organized than the western empire.
Under Justinian, who reigned from 527 to 565, the period is known for the flowering of the arts and sciences, evident in the construction of major buildings and churches, most notably Hagia Sophia, an enormous cathedral that still stands today.
Large wave of humans traveled from Siberia to Alaska around 13,000 B.C.E. By 9500 B.C.E., humans reached the southernmost part of South America
Early agriculture: beans, squashes, chilis; later, maize became the staple (5000 B.C.E.) Agricultural villages appeared after 3000 B.C.E.
Olmecs, the "rubber people,"lived near the Gulf of Mexico (1200 B.C.E. )
Elaborate complexes built
The colossal human heads--possibly likenesses of rulers
Rulers' power shown in construction of huge pyramids
Trade in jade and obsidian
Influence of Olmec: maize, ceremonial centers, calendar, human sacrifice, ball game
See Sarah and Linda’s documentary.
Strengthened patriarchy authority explained the popularity of foot binding which spread among privileged classes during the Song era.
Like the practice of veiling women in the Islamic world, foot binding placed women of privileged classes under tight supervision of their husbands or other male guardians, who managed the women’s affairs in the interests of the larger family.
Japanese emperors served as ceremonial figureheads and symbols of authority.
Effective power in the hands of the Fujiwara family.
Emperor did not rule, which explains the longevity of the imperial house .
Chinese learning dominated Japanese education and political thought.
The Tale of Genji was written by a woman, Murasaki Shikibu .
He formed an alliance with a prominent Mongol clan leader in the late 12th century.
He mastered the art of steppe diplomacy which called for displays of personal courage in battle, combined with intense loyalty to allies, as well as a willingness to betray allies to improve one’s position.
He mistrusted the tribes and broke up the tribal organization. He forced men of fighting age to join new military units with no tribal affiliations.
He chose high military and political officials not on the basis of kinship or tribal status, but rather because of their talents or their loyalty to him.
He establish a capital at Karakorum, present-day Har Horin and built a luxurious palace.
The early Mongol armies were large. They were also talented cavalrymen and archers. They were also quick to adopt military technology.
By Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, the Mongols controlled a large state encompassing present-day Mongolia, much of Central Asia, and northern and Western China.
From 1237-1240, the Mongols conquered most of Russia and Ukraine.
The Mongols invaded the Middle East in the 1250’s, toppling the Abbasid Caiphate in 1258 and advancing until 1260.
Mongols imposed a single political authority, encouraged economic exchange, made travel conditions safer, and imposed legal order. The Silk Road flourished, and cities like Samarkand became crucial economic centers, with merchants, missionaries, and travelers of all professions and ethnicities passing through.
Many historians refer to this brief semi-unification of Eurasia as the Pax Mongolica, or Mongol Peace.