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Distributed Configuration. T.C Software + T.C. Hardware = One OS in a multiprocessor system (DOS) Communication : shared memory T.C. Software + L.C. Hardware = Homogeneous OS in network (DOS) Communication : message passing

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Distributed Configuration

  • T.C Software + T.C. Hardware = One OS in a multiprocessor system (DOS) Communication: shared memory

  • T.C. Software + L.C. Hardware = Homogeneous OS in network (DOS) Communication: message passing

  • L.C. Software + L.C. Hardware = Heterogeneous OS in network (NOS) Communication: file sharing, network commands




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NOS->DOS

transparency

  • L.C. Software + L.C. Hardware + Middleware:

  • NOS->DOS :

  • near really distributed system + complexity reduction


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Middlewares

  • 1. distributed file systems

  • file level transparency (remote file using)

  • 2. RPC

  • process level transparency (remote procedure call)

  • 3. distributed objects

  • object level transparency (remote object call)

  • 4. distributed documents (web)

  • document level transparency (remote document call)



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T.C. software + L.C. hardware ->T.C software + T.C harwarewhy?communication by shared data(control mechanisms: semaphores , monitors)is easiercommunication by message(control mechanisms : algorithms:reliable group communication)




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Multiprocessor architectures

  • A multiprocessor traffic control system


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characteristics

  • Simplest distributed system model.

  • System composed of multiple processes which may execute on different processors.

  • Architectural model of many large real-time systems.

  • Distribution of process to processor may be pre-ordered or may be under the control of a dispatcher.




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characteristics

-The application is modelled as a set of services that are provided by servers and a set of clients that use these services.

-Clients know of servers but servers need not know of clients.

-Clients and servers are logical processes




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characteristics

  • Presentation layer

    • presenting the results of a computation to system users and with collecting user inputs.

  • Application processing layer

    • providing functionality e.g., in a banking system, banking functions such as open account, close account, etc.

  • Data management layer

    • managing the system databases.



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characteristics

Thin:Used when legacy systems are migrated to client server architectures. The legacy system acts as a server with a graphical interface implemented on a client.

Fat:suitable for new C/S systems where the capabilities of the client system are known in advance.

More complex than a thin client model.



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New Approach(using mobile code: applet, activex

Fat + Thin: A 3-tier C/S architecture


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characteristics

  • each of the application architecture layers may execute on a separate processor.

  • -better performance than a thin-client approach and is simpler to manage than a fat-client approach.

  • -A more scalable architecture - as demands increase, extra servers can be added.





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characterictics

No distinction between clients and servers.

Each distributable entity is an object that provides services to other objects and receives services from other objects.

Object communication: a middleware:ORB.

More complex to design than C/S systems.


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Advantages

allows to delay design decisions: where and how services should be provided.

a very open system architecture: new resources to be added to it.

The system is flexible and scaleable.

reconfigure the system dynamically with objects migrating across the network as required.


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A data mining system

  • new types of relationship to be mined by adding new integrator objects.