CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE. TOPICS. 1: DEFINITION OF AGRICULTURE 2: IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE 3: AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES 4: DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING. Introduction. Malaysia is currently a major player in research of tropical agricultural products
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF MODERN AGRICULTURE
TOPICS • 1: DEFINITION OF AGRICULTURE • 2: IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURE • 3: AGRICULTURE SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES • 4: DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING
Introduction • Malaysia is currently a major player in research of tropical agricultural products • Continue to enhance excellence in research and development of new agricultural industries and products • The Government provided environment and support.
TOPIC 1: Definition of Agriculture “Utilisation of natural resource systems to produce commodities which maintain life, including food, fiber, forest products, horticultural crops, and their related services.”
It involves farming; producing crops and raising livestock; to produce food, feed, fiber and other desired goods and at the same time to protect the cultivation area from deterioration and misuse
Definition of Agriculture • Modern agriculture is a business - Not only the production, but also the processing of produce into food and non-food items - For example, in oil palm the primary produce is the palm oil, then the oil can be processed into many other forms of food, pharmaceuticals and industrial products, and recently into biofuel
Present-day farming adopts soilless gardening (hydroponics) in which plants are grown in chemical nutrient solutions. • The packing, processing and marketing of agricultural products are other closely related activities; food preservation, quick-freezing and dehydration have helped increase the markets . • Note: Inclusion of “soilless culture” and “industrial activities from agricultural resources” is to be added in the earlier definition which considered the elements of “utilisation of natural resources” and “working the soil”, such as to arrive at a more comprehensive definition.
Modern agriculture also depends heavily on : • science and technology as well as the biological and physical sciences, hence the role of agronomy, horticulture, plant breeding and genetics, entomology, pathology, soil science, dairying, animal husbandry, agricultural chemists, engineers and • agricultural economics which deals with the feasibility, policies, business and trade is another important discipline in agriculture.
World Food Supply World population : 6.4 billion & expected to increase to 8 billion in 2030 (FaO). Average Food consumption: 2626 Kcal/day/person (FAO) Inputs to other industries Serves inputs or raw materials to the manufacturing sectors Supply food to other sectors such as the service sector and industrial sectors Some economic importance tax revenue to the government to provide "investable surplus" to other expending sectors to provide foreign exchange.
Importance of Agriculture to Malaysia Employment by Sector (000) Employment in agriculture ('000), 2000-2009
Importance of Agriculture to Malaysia Value of agricultural trade, 1998-2009
Importance of Agriculture • Traditional farming - subsistence agriculture, ensures the production of enough food to meet the needs of the family. • Malaysia: farming is an industrial intensive agriculture producing raw and processed products such as rubber, palm oil, cocoa, fish and livestock for exports
Importance of Agriculture • Agriculture in difficult times such as drought and other natural calamities to maintain socio-political stability. • Income is further derived from the transformation of agriculturalproducts
TOPIC 3:Agriculture Systems and Practices • 3.1 SUBSISTENCE FARMING Shifting Cultivation - most primitive form - as the soil fertility wanes, farmers move to more fertile land - characterised by low input/low yield, usually inter-cropping, slash and burn, low external input use, thus high risk
- Involves working on a plot of land to produce only enough food to feed the family; the success is highly dependent on the climate, soil conditions, the agricultural practices and the types of crops grown. - The benefit of fewer working hours provides the family with necessities to live a healthy and comfortable life outside of modern day society - Socioeconomic conditions may prevent an expansion of farming plot, and inheritance traditions require that a plot be split among the children.
Subsistence farming (as of 2006) is still practiced in: - Africa - Guinea, Rwanda, Madagascar, Sierra Leone and Zambia. - Central and South America – Mexico, - Europe – Yugoslavia and Albania. - Polynesia – Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu - SE-Asia – Sarawak, Indonesian Borneo, Laos, Cambodia.
3.2 COMMERCIALISED FARMING 1. Tropical Plantation Agriculture - system dominated by perennial crops which include rubber, oil palm, cocoa, coffee, coconut and tea. Yield mostly exported Two forms of operation: a) large industrialised companies (previous colonial imprints) AND b) small holding or peasant units selling to collecting groups (and middleman).
Characterised by monoculture, or a combination of a few crops, with high yielding modern varieties, large quantities of chemical input (pesticides & fertilizers) or feed concentrates in the case of ruminants and poultry, and high use of externally supplied technologies and machineries.
Agriculture Systems and Practices 2. Vegetable Farming - diversity of vegetable crops requires the use of various techniques to optimise yield 2.1 Organic Farming - crops are grown on the same plot in sequential seasons to avoid building up of pests and diseases - depletion of soil nutrients is avoided
Agriculture Systems and Practices 2.2 Hydroponics - growing plants without soil - plants absorb nutrients as simple ions in water - controlled environment
Hydroponics systems available include, for example water culture, drip feeding, nutrient film technique (NFT) and aeroponics.
Agriculture Systems and Practices 2.3 Aquaculture - purposeful cultivation of aquatic organisms as opposed to simply catching them from the wild
Agriculture Systems and Practices 2.4 Livestock Farming - raising livestock - Domesticated animals include cows, goats, pigs, sheeps, horses and poultry
Agriculture Systems and Practices 2.5 New Products and Future Industries - the development of biotechnology products, eg: GMO, HYV - to create new higher value industries - Examples include recreational fishery, agroforestry, herbal farming, mushroom cultivation and agrotourism.
TOPIC 4: DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING 1. Food Processing - Plant Origin juices, cordials, jems and jelly - Animal Origin burgers, sausages and nuggets
2. Industrial Processing - Plant Origin furniture and building materials - Animal Origin apparel, footwear, belts, handbags
Biotechnology and Genetically Modified Foods GM is a special set of technologies that alter the genetic makeup of such living organisms as animals, plants, or bacteria. Biotechnology, a more general term, refers to using living organisms or their components, such as enzymes, to make products that include wine, cheese, beer, and yogurt. GM products (current or in the pipeline) include medicines and vaccines, foods and food ingredients, feeds, and fibers.
Benefits and Controversies • Crops • Enhanced taste and quality • Reduced maturation time • Increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance • Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides • New products and growing techniques • Animals • Increased resistance, productivity, hardiness, and feed efficiency • Better yields of meat, eggs, and milk • Improved animal health and diagnostic methods • Environment • "Friendly" bioherbicides and bioinsecticides • Conservation of soil, water, and energy • Bioprocessing for forestry products • Better natural waste management • More efficient processing • Society • Increased food security for growing populations • Safety • Potential human health impact: allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers, unknown effects Potential environmental impact: unintended transfer of transgenes through cross-pollination, unknown effects on other organisms (e.g., soil microbes), and loss of flora and fauna biodiversity • Access and Intellectual Property • Domination of world food production by a few companies • Increasing dependence on Industralized nations by developing countries • Biopiracy—foreign exploitation of natural resources • Ethics • Violation of natural organisms' intrinsic values • Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species • Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa • Stress for animal • Labeling • Not mandatory in some countries (e.g., United States) • Mixing GM crops with non-GM confounds labeling attempts • Society • New advances may be skewed to interests of rich countries