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Periodic Table. Chapter 6. What do I know?. On the back of the blank periodic table write down at least 3 pieces of information you can get from the periodic table. A Brief History…. Joseph Proust Law of Definite Composition elements combine in definite proportions by weight

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what do i know
What do I know?
  • On the back of the blank periodic table write down at least 3 pieces of information you can get from the periodic table.
a brief history
A Brief History…
  • Joseph Proust
  • Law of Definite Composition
    • elements combine in definite proportions by weight
  • The weight of one element that combines with the weight of another element = combining weight
slide4
Joseph Berzelius

[1807 - 1818 ]

Determined the combining weights of 43 elements with oxygen.

Recognized similarities of certain elements...

similar metallic properties

similar reactive properties

Li, Na, K

similar nonmetals

Cl, Br, I,

“TRIPLETS”

slide5
Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner
  • 1829
  • mathematician
  • discovered that combining weight of middle triplet is the average [or near average]of the combining weights of the other two
  • Li, Na, K
slide6
Jean Stas
  • 1860
  • confirmed Proust theory of definite composition
  • established accurate atomic weight of the known elements
was there a relationship between the weight of an element and its properties
Was there a relationship between the weight of an element and its properties?
  • John A.R. Newlands
  • 1865
  • arranged elements in order of atomic weight
  • elements with similar properties were 7, or multiple of 7 apart
  • Law of Octaves
dimitri mendeleev 1869
Dimitri Mendeleev 1869
  • developed a chart -listed elements by increasing atomic weight
  • grouped elements with similar properties in the same row
  • Left Gaps where no element fit the pattern.
  • Predicted discovery of new elements
  • Predicted properties of new elements
old periodic law
.

“The properties of elements are in periodic dependence of their atomic weights.”

Dimitri Mendeleev

Old Periodic Law
alterations and additions
ALTERATIONS and ADDITIONS
  • Sir Wm.Ramsay
  • 1890’s
  • Discovered Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe
  • Helium and Radon disc. Previously
  • New row added to Periodic Table
slide13
Henry Gwyn-Jeffreys Mosley
  • 1914-1915
  • Number of protons determined
    • atomic number - identifies what an element is
  • Periodic Table Rearranged
    • elements arranged by increasing atomic number
    • similar elements put in columns instead of rows
modern periodic law
Modern Periodic Law
  • “The properties of elements are in periodic dependence of their atomic numbers.”
arrangement of the modern periodic table
ARRANGEMENT OF THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
  • A horizonal row on the periodic chart is refered to as either a period, or a series.
  • A vertical column on the periodic chart is refered to as either a group, or a family.
element location electron dot properties on chart notation
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notation
  • H Grp 1 H .Colorless gas
  • LiGrp 1 Li . Soft; silver

highly reactive

  • Na Grp 1 Na . Soft; silver

highly reactive

  • K Grp 1 K . Soft; silver

highly reactive

  • Rb Grp 1 Rb . Soft; silver

highly reactive

  • Cs Grp 1 Cs . Soft; silver

highly reactive

  • Fr Grp 1 Fr . Soft; silver
  • most reactive metal

Alkali Metals

element location electron dot properties on chart notationc
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notationc
  • Be Grp 2 Be : Reactive metal
  • Mg

Grp 2 Mg : Reactive metal

  • Ca

Grp 2 Ca : Reactive metal

  • Sr

Grp 2 Sr : Reactive metal

  • Ba

Grp 2 Ba : Reactive metal

  • Ra

Grp 2 Ra : Most reactive metal of group

Alkaline Earth Metals

what pattern s do we see
What pattern(s) do we see?
  • All elements in groups have same electron dot structure.
  • Group placement predicts valence.
  • Groups usually have similar properties.
  • Most reactive metals at the bottom of the group.
element location electron dot properties on chart notation1
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notation
  • B

Grp 3 B : nonmetal; black solid

  • Al

Grp 3 Al: Metal

  • Ga

Grp 3 Ga : Metal

  • In

Grp 3 In : Metal

  • Tl

Grp 3 Tl : Most reactive metal

element location electron dot properties on chart notation2
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notation
  • C

Grp 4 C : black→clear solid

  • Si

Grp 4 Si : Metalloid

  • Ge

Grp 4 Ge : Metal

  • Sn

Grp 4 Sn : Metal

  • Pb

Grp 4 Pb : Most reactive metal

element location electron dot properties on chart notation3
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notation
  • N
  • Grp 5 N : gas; nonmetal
  • P
  • Grp 5 P : nonmetal
  • As
  • Grp 5 As : Metalloid
  • Sb
  • Grp 5 Sb : Metalloid
  • Bi
  • Grp 5 Bi : Metal
element location electron dot properties on chart notation4
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notation
  • O
  • Grp 6 O : gas; nonmetal

reactive

  • S
  • Grp 6 S : Nonmetal
  • Se
  • Grp 6 Se : Nonmetal
  • Te
  • Grp 6 Te : Nonmetal
  • Po
  • Grp 6 Po : Metal

Chalcogen Family

element location electron dot properties on chart notation5
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notation
  • F
  • Grp 7 : F : gas; most reactive

nonmetal

  • Cl
  • Grp 7 :Cl : gas; reactive

nonmetal

  • Br
  • Grp 7 :Br : liquid; reactive

nonmetal

  • I
  • Grp 7 : I : solid; reactive

nonmetal

  • At
  • Grp 7 :At : solid; reactive

nonmetal

Halogen Family

element location electron dot properties on chart notation6
Element Location Electron Dot Properties on Chart Notation
  • He
  • Grp 8 He : inert; nonmetal
  • Ne
  • Grp8 :Ne : inert; nonmetal
  • Ar
  • Grp 8 :Ar : inert; nonmetal
  • Kr
  • Grp 8 :Kr : inert; nonmetal
  • Xe
  • Grp 8 :Xe : inert; nonmetal
  • Rn

Grp 8 :Rn : inert; nonmetal

Noble Gases / Inerts

what pattern s do we see1
What pattern(s) do we see?
  • All elements in groups have same electron dot structure.
  • Group placement predicts valence.
  • Groups usually have similar properties – (exception: steps)
  • Most reactive nonmetals at the top of the group.
  • Most reactive metals at the bottom of the group.
i spy with my little eye an element with
I spy with my little eye an element with…
  • 3 energy levels and 2 valence electrons
  • Mg
  • 5 energy levels and 4 valence electrons
  • Sn
  • 2 energy levels and 8 valence electrons
  • Ne
  • 1 valence electron and 5 energy levels
  • Rb
  • 1 valence electron and 7 energy levels
  • Fr
i spy with my little eye an element with1
I spy with my little eye an element with…
  • 4 energy levels and 7 valence electrons
  • Br
  • 3 energy levels and 5 valence electrons
  • P
  • 2 valence electrons and 4 energy levels
  • Ca
  • 3 valence electrons and 2 energy levels
  • B
  • 8 valence electrons and 5 energy levels
  • Xe
i spy with my little eye an element with2
I spy with my little eye an element with…
  • The heaviest halogen…
  • At (astatine)
  • The triplet with the average atomic weight of 35.5…
  • Cl
  • The least reactive Chalcogen
  • Po (polonium)
  • The group that fills the s2 valence orbital
  • Alkaline Earth Metals
  • A third period metalloid
  • Si
bonding
Bonding
  • See interactive
types of bonding
Types of Bonding
  • Ionic
    • Electrons transfer from one atom to another creating + and – ions.
  • Covalent
    • Atoms share electrons to create a molecule.
  • Metallic
    • Many atoms share electrons
types of bonding1
Types of Bonding
  • Ionic
    • Electrons transfer from one atom to another
    • creating + and – ions.

e-

+

-

+ energy

ionization energy
Ionization Energy
  • The energy required to remove the outermost e- in an atom.

Helium

Neon

Argon

Hydrogen

Lithium

Sodium

slide34
Why are some e- removed more easily?
    • Electrons that are farther away from the nucleus and that have more E levels between them and the nucleus
  • Low ionization energy
    • characteristic of METALS.
  • High ionization energy
    • characteristic of NONMETALS.
  • Removing successive electrons is more difficult, but follows the same overall pattern.
  • Na + Energy  Na+ + e- 119 Kcal / mol
  • Na+ + Energy  Na++ + e- 1090 Kcal/ mol
  • Na+++ Energy  Na++++ e- 1652 Kcal/ mol
electron affinity
Electron Affinity

The energy released / absorbed when an electron is accepted by a neutral atom

e-

+

-

+ energy

Ionization E removes e- and forms + ion

linked

Electron affinity is the E released when the neutral atom accepts the freed e- and becomes -

electron affinity1
Electron Affinity

Lithium

Sodium

Fluorine

Chlorine

slide37

Electron Affinity

Increases across a period

Decreases

slide38
For atoms that have - valences:
  • Atom + e-  A- + E
  • exothermic - energy released
  • (electron affinity)
  • stable product
  • Atom + e- + E  A-
  • endothermic - energy required
  • unstable product
slide39
Covalent
    • Atoms share electrons to create a molecule.

Shared e-’s

electronegativity
Electronegativity
  • the attraction of an atom for a shared pair of electrons
electronegativity1
Electronegativity

Fluorine

Chlorine

Lithium

Sodium

electronegativity2
Electronegativity
  • Types of Covalent Bonds:
  • pure covalent - relatively even sharing of e-
  • polar covalent - uneven sharing of e-
  • 0 - .5 ....... pure covalent
  • .5 - 1.7..... polar covalent
  • > 1.7 ....... ionic bond
atomic radius size
Atomic Radius [size]

Sodium

Lithium

Chlorine

Fluorine

slide46
Down a group
    • E levels are added.
  • Across a period
    • Increased attraction between the E levels and the nucleus causes the size to decrease.
  • Pauli Repulsion Theory
  • As the number of electrons increases so does the repulsion between the electrons; this may help account for the irregular increase in the radii.
ions size
Ions [size]
  • Increases down a Group
  • Decreases across a Period
  • Metal atoms lose electrons
    • become positive (cation)
    • Cations are SMALLER than the atoms from which they come.
  • Nonmetal atoms gain electrons
    • become negative (anion)
    • Anions are LARGER than the atoms from which they come.
density
Density

Aluminum

Boron

Sodium

Chlorine

Lithium

Fluorine

density1
Density
  • Here the density of each period is graphed individually
density2
Density
  • Generally, density
    • increases down a group
    • Increases across the metals in a period, and then decreases across the nonmetals
m p and b p
M.P and B.P.

Boron

Aluminum

Argon

Lithium

Sodium

Neon

m p and b p1
M.P. and B.P.
  • Generally, like density, M.P. and B.P.
    • increases down a group
    • Increases across the metals in a period, and then decreases across the nonmetals
configurations and the periodic table
Configurations and the Periodic Table
  • Electrons that reside in the outermost shell of an atom are called valence electrons.
  • These electrons are primarily involved in chemical reactions.
  • Elements within a given group have the same “valence shell configuration.”
  • This accounts for the similarity of the chemical properties among groups of elements.
configurations and the periodic table1
Configurations and the Periodic Table
  • The following slide illustrates how the periodic table provides a sound way to remember the Aufbau sequence.
  • In many cases you need only the configuration of the outer electrons.
  • You can determine this from their position on the periodic table.
  • The total number of valence electrons for an atom equals its group number.
configurations and the periodic table2
Configurations and the Periodic Table

s2

p6

s1

1

s2

p1

p2

p3

p4

p5

2

3

S

filling

d1

d2

d3

d4

d5

d6

d7

d8

d9

d10

P

filling

3d

5d

4

4d

5

6

*

7

** 6d

f filling

the elements
The Elements
  • The Elements in Song