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Adult CPR/AED. Before Giving Care Recognizing and Responding to an Emergency. Emergencies are often signaled by something that catches your attention : Unusual sights Unusual appearances or behaviors Unusual odors Unusual noises .

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Before Giving Care

Recognizing and Responding to an Emergency

  • Emergencies are often signaled by something that catches your attention:
  • Unusual sights
  • Unusual appearances or behaviors
  • Unusual odors
  • Unusual noises

It may be hard to recognize an emergency or sudden illness in some cases. The signals are not always easy to see or identify.

  • If you think something is wrong, check the person. Ask questions. Questions may help you find out what is wrong.
  • A person may deny anything is seriously wrong.
overcoming barriers to act
Overcoming Barriers to Act
  • The most common factors that keep people from responding are:
  • The presence of other people.
  • Being unsure of the ill or injured person’s condition.
  • The type of injury or illness.
  • Fear of catching a disease.
  • Fear of doing something wrong.
  • Fear of being sued.
  • Being unsure of when to call 9-1-1.
good samaritan laws
Good Samaritan Laws

All 50 states have enacted Good Samaritan Laws that give legal protection to people who willingly give emergency care to an ill or injured person without accepting anything in return.

these laws require the good samaritan to
These laws require the “Good Samaritan” to
  • Act in good faith.
  • Not be deliberately negligent or reckless.
  • Act within the scope of his or her training.
  • Not abandon the person after starting to give care.
obtaining consent
Obtaining Consent
  • Before giving first aid to a conscious adult, you must obtain his or her permission to give care. To obtain consent:
  • State your name
  • Tell the person you are trained in first aid
  • Ask the person if you can help
  • Explain what you think may be wrong
  • Explain what you plan to do
important points to remember include
Important points to remember include …….
  • DO NOT give care to a conscious person who refuses it.
  • If a person does not give consent, you should still call 9-1-1.
  • If the conscious person is an infant or child, get permission to give care from the parent or guardian if present.
implied consent
Implied Consent
  • If the person is unconscious or unable to respond due to the illness or injury, consent is implied. Implied consent means you can assume that if the person could respond, he or she would agree to be cared for.
  • Consent is also implied for an infant to child if a parent or guardian is not present or immediately available.
preventing disease transmission
Preventing Disease Transmission
  • Avoid contact with blood and other body fluids.
  • Avoid touching objects that may be soiled with blood or body fluids.
  • Cover any cuts, scrapes, or sores.
  • Remove jewelry such as rings and watches before giving care.
  • Wear protective gloves (nitrile or vinyl).
golden rules for first aid
Golden Rules for First Aid
  • Always have a reason for what you do!
  • Never move a victim unless their life is in danger.
emergency action steps
Emergency Action Steps
  • Check
  • Call
  • Care
emergency action steps1
Emergency Action Steps
  • CHECK the scene for safety; CHECK the ill or injured person.
    • CHECK the scene:
          • Is it safe?
          • What happened?
          • How many people are involved?
          • Is there immediate danger involved?
          • Is anyone else available to help?
emergency action steps2
Emergency Action Steps
  • CHECK the ill or injured person for life-threatening conditions, such as…..
    • Unconsciousness.
    • No breathing or trouble breathing.
    • No signs of life (breathing or movement).
    • Severe bleeding.
emergency action steps3
Emergency Action Steps
  • 2. Call 9-1-1 or the local emergency number when appropriate.
    • Unconsciousness.
    • Trouble breathing or breathing in a strange way.
    • Not breathing.
    • No signs of life.
    • Chest pains that last for 2 minutes or longer.
    • Severe bleeding that does not stop.
    • Possible head, neck, or back injuries.
emergency action steps4
Emergency Action Steps
  • 3. Care for the ill or injured person.
    • If you are alone call 9-1-1 first for:
      • an unconscious adult of 12 or older
      • a witnessed collapse of a child or older
  • Give two minutes of care first for:
    • an unwitnessed collapse of an unconscious person younger than 12 years old
    • any victim of drowning
checking an unconscious person
Checking an Unconscious Person

CHECK the scene, the CHECK the person.

Check for responsiveness.

Tap the shoulder and shout, “Are you okay?”

If no response, CALL 9-1-1. (If they are face down, roll the person over face up.)

Open the airway using the head tilt, chin lift method. CHECK for breathing for no more than 10 seconds. (Look, listen, and feel).

Quickly scan for severe bleeding.

If the person is breathing, monitor the ABC’s. If leaving victim place in recovery position.

abc s

A = Airway (keep the airway open with the head tilt, chin lift)

B = Breathing (look, listen, feel)

C = Circulation (skin color, temperature, heartbeat)

conscious choking adult the person cannot cough speak or breathe
Conscious Choking – AdultThe person cannot cough, speak, or breathe

CHECK the scene, then CHECK the person. (Ask, are you choking? If female, are you pregnant?)

Have someone call 9-1-1.

Obtain consent (I am trained in first aid, can I help you?)

Lean the person forward and give 5 back blows with the heel of your hand.

Give 5 quick upward abdominal thrusts (pause between each thrust, chest thrusts should be used on pregnant women or very large people).


6. Continue back blows and abdominal thrust until-

    • Object is forced out
    • Person can breathe or cough forcefully
    • Person becomes unconscious

Note: You can give yourself abdominal thrusts by using your hands or using the back of a chair or desk.

cpr adult
CPR - Adult

Not 100% successful but it gives someone a chance. Early CPR helps circulate blood that contains oxygen to vital organs.

CHECK the scene – CHECK the person.

Tap and shout, “Are you ok?”

CALL 9-1-1.

Tip the head back and look, listen and feel for signs of life for no more than 10 seconds.

No signs of life – give 2 rescue breaths.

Air goes in – find the center of the chest and give 30 compressions and 2 rescue breaths.

  • Continue CPR until:
    • You find an obvious sign of life, such as breathing.
    • An AED is ready for use.
    • Another trained responder or EMS personnel take over.
    • You are too exhausted to continue.
    • The scene becomes unsafe.
unconscious choking adult
Unconscious Choking - Adult

Check the scene for safety.

Tap and shout “Are you okay?”

No response, CALL 9-1-1.

Tip head back and check for signs of life for no more than 10 seconds.

No signs of life – Give 2 breaths.

If the breaths do not go in…

6. Re-tip the head and attempt 2 more breaths.

7. If the chest does not rise – give 30 chest compressions. (Place hands in the center of the chest and compress the chest 1 ½ to 2 inches at a rate of 100 compressions per minute.)


Look for an object.

  • Remove the object if you see one. (Use a hooking motion to remove the object.)
  • Try 2 rescue breaths.
  • Repeat the steps of compressions, sweep, breaths until the object comes out or the airway is clear.
aed adult no signs of life over age 8 or more than 55 pounds
AED – AdultNo signs of life (over age 8 or more than 55 pounds)
  • After two minutes of CPR and the AED arrives on the scene:
    • Turn on AED.
    • Attach pads to bare chest.
    • Plug in connector (if necessary).
    • Make sure no one, including you, is touching the person. Say – “EVERYONE STAND CLEAR”
    • Push “analyze” button, if necessary. Let the AED analyze heart rhythm.
    • If shock is advised – make sure no one including you, is touching the person. Say – “EVERYONE STAND CLEAR”. Push the shock button, if necessary.
aed what to do next
AED – What to do next….
  • After shock – give 5 cycles or about 2 minutes of CPR. Let AED reanalyze.
  • If no shock advised – give 5 cycles or about 2 minutes of CPR.