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PERIODIC TABLE. The Language of Chemistry. CHEMICAL ELEMENTS - pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances. Aluminum. Bromine. Sodium. The Language of Chemistry. The elements, their names, and symbols are given on the PERIODIC TABLE.

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The language of chemistry
The Language of Chemistry


    • pure substances that cannot be decomposed by ordinary means to other substances.




The language of chemistry1
The Language of Chemistry

  • The elements, their names, and symbols are given on thePERIODIC TABLE

The periodic table
The Periodic Table

Dmitri Mendeleev (1834 - 1907) arranged elements in order of increasing atomic mass.

Groups in the periodic table vertical columns
Groups in the Periodic TableVertical columns

Elements in groups react in similar ways!

Have similar chemical and physical properties

Periods in the periodic table horizontal rows 7
Periods in the Periodic TableHorizontal rows = 7

Regions of the periodic table
Regions of the Periodic Table

3 classes of elements





  • 80% of elements are metals

  • Metallic lust, shiny

  • Good conductors (heat, electricity)

  • Solid at room temperature (except Hg)

  • Ductile – can be pulled through wires

  • Malleable


  • Most are gases at room temperature

  • Dull color if solid

  • P and S are solids

  • Br - liquid

  • Poor conductors of heat and temperature

    • Carbon is the exception


  • Have characteristics of metals and nonmetals

  • Can be metallic

  • Brittle (not malleable or ductile

  • Semiconductors ( Si)

Group 1a alkali metals
Group 1A: Alkali Metals

Silvery colored

Very Reactive



good conductors


Cutting sodium metal

Periodic table

Group 2A: Alkaline Earth Metals


Magnesium oxide

Very reactive

Transition elements
Transition Elements

Lanthanides and actinides


Good conductors of electricity and heat

Iron, Cobalt and Nickel can create magnetic


Can have several oxidation (Lose Electrons) states

Group 7a the halogens salt makers f cl br i at
Group 7A: The Halogens (salt makers) F, Cl, Br, I, At

Non Metals

Extremely reactive/Dangerous

Forms salts (NaCl)

Forms Acids (HF)

Used in: lamps (halogen), Teflon (Flourine + Carbon)

Group 8a the noble inert gases he ne ar kr xe rn


Group 8A: The Noble (Inert) GasesHe, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

  • Lighter than air balloons

  • “Neon” signs

  • Very Unreactive because they have full electron shells

The periodic table review
The Periodic Table -Review

1. Name group 1

2. Name group 7

3. 2 Characteristics of metals

4. 2 characteristics of nonmetals

Periodic trends

  • Atomic size- Increase in atomic number draws electrons closer to the nucleus = smaller

Ionization energy
Ionization Energy

  • The energy required to remove an electron from an atom in order to form an ion

  • Easy to remove electrons from group 1A more difficult to remove electrons across a row

Periodic table

  • IONSare atoms or groups of atoms with a positive or negative charge.

  • Taking away an electron from an atom gives a CATION with a positive charge

  • Adding an electron to an atom gives an ANION with a negative charge.

  • To tell the difference between an atom and an ion, look to see if there is a charge in the superscript! Examples: Na+ Ca+2 I- O-2

    Na Ca I O

Forming cations anions
Forming Cations & Anions

A CATION forms when an atom loses one or more electrons.

An ANION forms when an atom gains one or more electrons

F + e- --> F-

Mg --> Mg2+ + 2 e-

Predicting ion charges

In general

  • metals (Mg) lose electrons ---> cations

  • nonmetals (F) gain electrons ---> anions

Charges on common ions






Charges on Common Ions

By losing or gaining e-, atom has same number of e-’s as nearest Group 8A atom.

Ionic size
Ionic Size

  • Cations are always smaller than the atoms they form

  • Anions are always larger than the atoms from which they form


  • Ability of an atom in an element to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound