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Intelligence and Creativity. 2nd November. Definition of intelligence. The ability to learn from experience The ability to adjust to the environment The ability to use metacognition. History of intelligence testing. Francis Galton: differences in brain efficiency (1880)

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Definition of intelligence l.jpg
Definition of intelligence

  • The ability to learn from experience

  • The ability to adjust to the environment

  • The ability to use metacognition


History of intelligence testing l.jpg
History of intelligence testing

  • Francis Galton: differences in brain efficiency (1880)

  • Binet a Simon: Binet’s Mental Age Scale (1911)


William stern intelligence quotient iq 1912 l.jpg
William Stern: intelligence quotient - IQ (1912)

  • IQ = MA/ChA x 100

  • nowadays we use deviation IQ


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Normal distribution of scores on IQ tests.

A

34%

34%

13,5%

13,5%

2%

2%

C

B

115

130

Average

100

55

70

85

145


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The structure of intelligence

  • Charles Spearman (1927)

    • general factor g

    • special factors s (e.g. arithmetic computing…)

  • Louis Thurstone (1938)

    • 7 primary mental abilities

  • Raymond Cattel (1971)

    • 2 subfactors: fluid and crystallized intelligence


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Intelligence tests

  • The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale

  • The Wechsler Tests

  • I-S-T Amthauer’s Intelligence Structure Test


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Basic module:

verbal intelligence

numericintelligence

figural intelligence

memory

cognitive abilities

Expanded module:

verballycodedknowledge

numerically codedknowledge

knowledge

crystallized intelligence

fluidintelligence

I-S-T 2000 R


The core of the intelligence l.jpg
The core of the intelligence?

  • speed and accuracy of information processing

    • ?neuronal speed? like reaction time

  • neuronal efficiency

    • during the solving of the hard task, more intelligent people’s brains utilize more glucose (easy task - less)

  • mental operations like planning


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Howard Gardner (1999): Multidimensional intelligence

  • language ability

  • mathematical-logical reasoning

  • spatial-perceptual skills

  • musical ability

  • bodily ability

  • intrapersonal ability

  • interpersonal ability


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Culture fair tests

  • Catell’s Culture Fair Intelligence Test

  • Counterbalance General Intelligence Test

  • … no general success, agreement…


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Race Differences ???

  • Lynn, R. Race differences in Intelligence: An Evolutionary Analysis. Washington Summit Books: Augusta, 2005


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Race differences/ average IQ

  • East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, Koreans): 105

  • Europeans: 100

  • Inuit or Eskimos: 91

  • South East Asians: 87

  • Native American Indians: 87

  • Pacific Islanders: 85

  • South Asians and North Africans: 84

  • Sahara Africans: 67

  • Australian Aborigines: 62

  • Bushman of the Kalahari, Pygmies of the Congo rain forest: 54


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Correlates with (reliability):

  • achievement in math and science

  • national economic development (rich and poor nations)

  • explain how quickly populations made the Neolithic transition


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Causes of the race differences?

  • 50% genetics

  • consistency of racial IQ in different locations

  • nutrition: Black and Whites in America have the same height since the 1st world war

  • Evolutionary analysis: species have evolved greater intelligence in order to survive in more cognitively demanding environments… cold weather


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Creativity

  • the proces of creating of something which is original as well as valuable

  • minimum IQ of 120? + motivation!!! + special abilities?


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Tests of creativity

  • UrbanĹŻv figurálnĂ­ test tvoĹ™ivĂ©ho myšlenĂ­

    (Urban’s figural test of creative thinking)

  • Consequence test

  • Remote Associate Test

  • Unusual Uses Test

  • Word Association Test