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Factors influencing creativity and innovation--- creativity. B.V.L.NARAYANA SPTM. Definitions (Amabile et al 1996). Creativity is defined as Production of novel and useful ideas in any domain SEE ORDER IN DISORDER Innovation is defined as
Factors influencing creativity and innovation--- creativity B.V.L.NARAYANA SPTM
Definitions (Amabile et al 1996) • Creativity is defined as • Production of novel and useful ideas in any domain • SEE ORDER IN DISORDER • Innovation is defined as • Successful implementation of creative ideas in any organisation • Creativity of individuals and teams is the starting point for innovation • Creativity and innovation are important • Life is becoming increasingly complex, fast and changing at a faster pace • Allows adaptation, maintain flexibility and is part of decision making • Creativity requires originality and flexibility • Contributes to physical and psychological health and optimal functioning
Factors influencing creativity • Factors • Individual level • Group and organisational level
Factors at individual level • Age – • creativity decreases with age unless individual is intentionally creative • Intelligence- • certain level required for certain measures of creativity only. • Personality- • high valuation of aesthetic qualities in experiences, interests, attraction to complexity, independence of judgment, autonomy, intuition , self confidence, ability to resolve conflicting traits in self and belief that self is creative • Dispositions- • high level of intrinsic motivation, follow intrinsic interests, free from evaluations and constraints • Capabilities • Insight is a result of integration of previously learned behaviors • potential
Processes influencing creativity • Associative process is involved in divergent thinking and problem solving • Cognitive flexibility-process by which obvious patterns of thinking are discarded and new higher order rules are adopted • Intrinsic motivation –process where people feel motivated by interest, challenge and satisfaction of work itself • Creative thinking is capacity to put existing ideas in new combinations and is facilitated by diversity of experience and learning • Divergent thinking –process by which one extrapolates many possible answers to an initial stimulus or target data • Intuition of flash intelligence- flash of a recognition that problem is solved • Flow- when person is fully immersed in what is being done and has a feeling of energized focus, shows full involvement and success and excludes other stimuli
Pressures or impediments • Two types-alpha and beta • Alpha is objective • Beta is based on individuals interpretations • Positive pressures • freedom, autonomy, good role models and resources (including time), encouragement specifically for originality, freedom from criticism, and “norms in which innovation is prized and failure not fatal” • Inhibiting pressures • lack of respect (specifically for originality), red tape, constraint, lack of autonomy and resources, inappropriate norms, project management, feedback, time pressure, competition, and unrealistic expectations
Resources influencing creativity • Time • Original ideas are remote with respect to original problem • Creative ideas require time for incubation
Demographic factors • Birth order • Middle born children are more creative • family size • Number of siblings • Interval among siblings • Family and school atmosphere • Large families have authoritarian structures • Freedom and autonomy facilitates creativity
Neurological factors • Creativity reflects originality and appropriateness, intuition and logic. It requires both hemispheres • Requires consistent communication among many areas in brain and increased emotional expression • Defocused attention • Knowledge –declarative, factual, tactics or procedural knowledge • Intuition, ability to consider two different perspectives simultaneously, incubation, imagination
Cognitive neuroscience of creativity • Creative thinking is the result of ordinary mental processes • Human information processing is hierarchically structured and creative mentation lies at the highest—prefrontal cortex • Two different types of neural systems • Emotional brain-attaches a value tag to incoming information and enables evaluation of its biological significance—does “Me-relevant computation” • Perceptual brain- performs detailed feature analysis of incoming information enabling construction of sophisticated representations that form basis for cognitive processing • Both the systems can be dissociated anatomically and processually.
Cognitive neuroscience of creativity • Executive function—consisting of integrating of processed information, formulation of plans and strategies for appropriate behavior and instruction of adjacent motor cortices for execution-requires both systems • Emotional Process of evaluating the significance of complex social situations—Me-relevant emotions • Cognitive process of Selective attention and Feature analysis leading to mental models • Each have separate memories which track their activities • Full reintegration of these systems occurs in the pre-frontal cortex • At all levels of functional hierarchy neural structures have direct access to activation of the motor system
Cognitive neuroscience of creativity • Pre-frontal cortex performs executive functions and thus is central to creative thinking • Enables higher cognitive functions such as self construct, self reflective consciousness, abstract thinking, complex social functions, cognitive flexibility, planning, and willed action • Other cognitive functions are working memory, temporal integration and sustained and directed attention • Two main parts • Ventero-medial –connected to higher order emotional processing system—does social function through “me-relevant” assessment • Dorso-medial- connected to higher order information and cognitive processing systems—does working memory, cognitive flexibility, temporal integration, ordering and sequencing and directed attention
Process of creativity • Every neural circuit can compute specific information and also produce novel combinations • More integrative the neural structure more combinational novelty can occur • Appropriateness is a function of higher order structures that assess a complex and changing set of rules or values implicit in persons culture. This generates a selection process which selects the appropriate idea out of many • Four types of creativity based on types of structures and processing modes
Types of creativity Deliberate Spontaneous Emotional Cognitive
Impediments to business creativity (Amabile 1998) • Business creativity-requires both originality and appropriateness • Six set of factors impede business creativity • Challenge—match work to persons capabilities • Freedom- autonomy to choose process not ends • Resources-appropriate time and money • Work group features—mutually supportive with diversity of perspectives and backgrounds • Supervisory support—in form of extrinsic rewards, praise, foster collaboration, communication • Organisational support- leaders who put in place systems and processes which support creativity-support failures
Intrinsic motivation CREATIVITY Creative thinking skills Expertise THANKS-ANY QUESTIONS