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Chapter 7 - muscles

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  1. Chapter 7 - muscles • Almost all movements result from muscle contraction • Click here for link to muscle system: • http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/BioBookMUSSKEL.html#Skeletal%20Muscle%20Systems • Characteristics of skeletal muscle: striated, voluntary • Four major functional characteristics: • Contractiity • Excitability • Extensibility • Elasticity

  2. Structure of skeletal muscles • Fascia • Epimesium • Muscle fasiculi • Muscle fibers • Endomysium • perimysium

  3. Muscle structure – cont’d • Sarcoplasm • Myofibril • Actin myofilaments • Myosin myofilaments • Sarcomeres • Sarcolemma • http://www.brookscole.com/chemistry_d/templates/student_resources/shared_resources/animations/muscles/muscles.html

  4. Membrane potentials • Resting membrane potential – potassium ion concentration • Depolarization • Repolarization • Action potential • Sodium/potassium pump

  5. Nerve supply • Motor neurons, neuromuscular junction, motor unit • Neurotransmitters – acetylcholine • Muscle contraction – sliding filament mechanism • See diagram pg. 160

  6. Muscle twitch • Muscle twitch – contraction of an entire muscle – threshold level – all or none response • Tetanus • recruitment

  7. Energy requirements for muscle contraction • ATP/ADP • Creatine phosphate • Aerobic vs. anaerobic respiration • Oxygen debt • Muscle fatigue • Physiological contracture

  8. Types of muscle contractions • Isometric contractions • Isotonic contractions • Muscle tone • Slow twitch fibers • Fast twitch fibers

  9. Skeletal muscle anatomy • Tendon • Aponeuroses • Origin • Insertion • Action • Belly • Synergists/antagonists • Prime mover/fixator

  10. Diagrams • In addition to the notes for this chapter, you need to know the following diagrams, origins, insertions and actions: (see forwarded list) • Practice quiz: • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072919329/student_view0/chapter9/multiple_choice_quiz.html

  11. Muscle diagrams

  12. Muscle diagrams • 2. Frontalis • 3. Orbicularis Oculi • 7. Orbicularis Oris • 16. Trapezius • 17. Deltoid • 18. Pectoralis Major • 20. Rectus Abdominis • 22. Biceps Brachii • 23. Brachialis • 25. Brachioradialis • 31. Sartorius • 33. Gracilis • 34. Rectus Femoris • 35. Vastus Intermedius • 36. Vastus Lateralis • 37. Vastus Medialis • 38. Gastrocnemius • 40. Tibialis Anterior

  13. Muscles

  14. muscles • 5. Trapezius • 6. Deltiod • 7. Teres Minor • 8. Teres Major • 9. Triceps Brachii • 10. Latissimus Dorsi • 11. Brachioradialis • 19. Internal & External Oblique • 20. Gluteus Medius & Gluteus Minimus (underneath Gluteus Medius) • 21. Gluteus Maximus • 22. Vastus Lateralis • 23. Gracilis • 25. Biceps Femoris • 26. Semitendinosus • 27. Semimembranosus • 28. Gastocnemius