human heredity the environment and disease nature and nurture
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Human Heredity, the Environment and Disease: Nature and Nurture National Human Genome Research Institute Emily L. Harris, Ph.D., M.P.H. Epidemiologist, Office of Population Genomics National Human Genome Research Institute May 1, 2007 National Institutes of Health

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human heredity the environment and disease nature and nurture

Human Heredity, the Environment and Disease: Nature and Nurture

National Human Genome Research Institute

Emily L. Harris, Ph.D., M.P.H.Epidemiologist, Office of Population Genomics

National Human Genome Research Institute

May 1, 2007

National Institutes of Health

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

nature and nurture
Nature and Nurture:

Causal models & inferences from studying populations

slide3
A Continuum of Causation

Genes (or nature)

Environment (or nurture)

nature and nurture5
Nature and Nurture:

Causal models & inferences from

studying populations

Question: What causes the differences in height among individuals?

slide7
Height

AND

Nutrition (environment)

slide9
Height

AND

Genes

slide11
Height

AND

Genes & Environment

nature and nurture12
Nature and Nurture:

Causal models & inferences from

studying populations

Question: What causes the differences in height among individuals?

Conclusion: Depends on the population(s) studied.

nature and nurture13
Nature and Nurture:

Multifactorial models in

complex diseases

Example: Cancer

slide14
Most Cancer Is NOT Inherited

All Breast Cancer Patients

Known Inherited Factor

Unknown Factor(s)

slide15
Chemical Bases in DNA

Gene

Chemical bases

DNA molecule (chromosome)

A

T

C

G

slide16
Altered DNA->Altered Protein

Cell membrane

DNA

Nucleus

Chain of amino acids

DNA bases

mRNA

Gene

Protein

Ribosome

slide17
Many Mutations Lead to Cancer

Normal

Cell

First

Mutation

Second

Mutation

Third

Mutation

Malignant Cells

Fourth or

Later Mutation

slide18
Most Cancer Is NOT Inherited

All Breast Cancer Patients

Known Inherited Factor

Unknown Factor(s)

factors affecting cancer development progression
Factors affectingCancer Development & Progression
  • Oncogenes (cancer promoting)
  • Tumor suppressor genes
  • Carcinogen metabolism genes
  • Immune surveillance for abnormal cells
some factors affecting cancer development progression
Some Factors affectingCancer Development & Progression
  • Oncogenes (cancer promoting)
  • Tumor suppressor genes
    • E.g., DNA repair proficiency
  • Carcinogen metabolism genes
  • Immune surveillance for abnormal cells
dna repair cell pathology
DNA Repair & Cell Pathology

Author: Harold Brenner

slide23
A Continuum of Causation

Genes (or nature)

Environment (or nurture)

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