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  3. Index : • Socio-cultural view • Ethnic view • Philosophical view • Religious view • Attitude towards death • Upbringing and socialization in sikhism • Funeral rituals • Afterlife • Attitude of loved ones • Attitude of dying person before and after death • Expected differences in reaction to death depending upon age and gender • Attitude towards caregiver • Attitude of parents towards children telling about death How do these feelings and attitudes abut death affect how you currently cope with dying patients/residents and the bereaved?


  5. History of sikhism •


  7. Deity: Sikhs believe in a single, Formless God, with many names, who can be known through meditation. his concept is similar to Islam whose followers believe in a single God who has 99 names. The MoolMantar, the first hymn composed by Guru Nanak, is recited daily by many Sikhs. It contains a description of many of the attributes of God: There is only one God; His Name is Truth; He is the Creator; He is without fear; He is without hate; He is beyond time (i.e. is immortal); He is beyond birth and death; He is self-existent. 1 Only he can be worshiped. Rahras, a Sikh evening prayer states: • "[O God] since I have fallen at your feet, I do not care for anybody else. I do not follow the religious ways preached by various religions believing in Ram, Mohammed, Puran or Qur'an. The Simritis, Shastras and the Vedas lay down different doctrines. But I do not recognize any of these. O God, I have written these hymns with your grace and kindness. All that has been said is in fact spoken by you."

  8. Sikh Practices: Prayers: repeated multiple times each day. Worship: Sikhs are prohibited from worshipping idols, images, or icons. Temples: There are over 200 Gurdwaras (temples, shrines or holy places) in India alone. The most sacred is Harmandir Sahib, the Golden Temple, at Amritsar. However, all places where the Sri Guru Granth Sahib is installed are equally holy. • Bhangra and the Gidha are two forms of indigenous Punjabi folk dancing that have been appropriated, adapted and pioneered by Punjabi Sikhs. The Punjabi Sikhs have championed these forms of expression all over the world, resulting in Sikh culture becoming inextricably linked to Bhangra, even though "Bhangra is not a Sikh institution but a Punjabi one. • Sikhs, therefore, have had an obligation to treat women as equals, and gender discrimination in Sikh society has not been allowed. However, gender equality has been difficult to achieve

  9. Ethnic view

  10. Sikhs believe that the purpose of life is to love God, and to use self-discipline to replace greed, desire, anger, and pride, with contentment, humbleness, and forgiveness. Sikhs emphasize the importance of work with hands, head, and heart in the service of themselves, their family, and the social community. In following God's will, Sikhs hope to lose their sense of the importance of themselves and their daily concerns, and to feel a sense of harmony with God. • For a Sikh, God is infinite and eternal, and the creator of all. He cares equally for all people, regardless of their religion, and God is within everyone. Sikhs believe that God is the source of love, and that people should act with love to God, to one other, and to the world. Meditating on God's name is one of the central spiritual activities of Sikhs.

  11. Continued. . . • There is no priesthood in Sikhism, because it practises equality of all, both men and women. Women read from the Guru Granth Sahib (holy book) in services in the gurdwara (Sikh place of worship), and can join the Khalsa (order or community of Sikhs). On joining the Khalsa, men are given the name Singh (lion), and women are called Kaur (princess). In practice, women have total spiritual equality with men, but the roles of men and women differ. Men are more active in society at large, and women have more responsibilities in the home. Restrictions placed upon women are of social rather than religious origin. Sikhs reject the caste system and do not believe in superstitious practices, consulting astrologers, ancestor worship, or wearing the sacred thread. This reflects the context, views, and practices of the founding gurus (see guru), in their opposition of aspects of the culture of Hinduism and Islam.

  12. Philosophical view of death • PHILOSOPHICAL VIEW OF DEATH

  13. According to Sikh poet-philosophers, human suffering and death are two facts of human life

  14. According to Guru ArjunDevJi, Sikhs should welcome to death

  15. Sheikh Farid has said that, Death is a visible presence, not to be ignored in the course of daily round of life. Life is like a tree on the river bank or like an unbaked pitcher.

  16. Guru Nanak DevJi has compared Death to the “net” thrown in to catch the fish.


  18. Accoding to holy book of siks, death should not be considered better than life. It reminds human biengs that they are the embodiment of divine light itself.

  19. Sikhs believe in repetitive cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth. It supports the concept of reincarnations.

  20. It is also believed that those who born as human-bieng and fall at the feet of God shall not go through the cycle of transmigration.

  21. According to Sikh religion, there are eighty-four lacs life classes, out of which birth as a human is the best. Eyes behold, ears listen to and the mouth speaks sweet words. Hands earn livelihood and feet take towards the holy congregation. In human life alone by the rightful earning, out of one's savings, other needy ones are fed. Man by becoming gurmukh- means God oriented, makes his life meaningful; he reads Gurbani and makes others understand (the importance of) bani that is lessons written by leaders of this religion. . We now find ourselves in the body of a human our one chance to possibly break out of the circle of life and death, and what do we do , we deny it, we fritter it away.

  22. Holy book of sikhs also state that relatives of dying person should not endulge in wailing.


  24. To a Sikh, death is reunion with the Beloved Creator; it is a time of joy, because the soul has longed for this moment since it was separated from Him. As human beings, however, we feel sadness at the loss of someone we cared for and loved. • The time of death is an opportunity to re-examine and re-affirm our faith and acceptance of the Will of God. A confirmed faith in the reality of reincarnation, and an understanding of the journey of the soul, give us the strength and insight to cope with the death of even our loved ones.There are Ten Bodies which comprise the human being incarnate. The soul (the spiritual body) is the finite part of the spirit. The subtle body is the capsule which carries the soul; the soul leaves the body in the capsule of the subtle body. The subtle body reflects the clarity of your commitment, your Dharmic faith and practice.

  25. At the moment of death, the mental body (positive, negative and neutral) tries to send a final impression, a message to the dying person; this reflects the samskaras, the unbalanced impressions and residues left over from the karma of the person’s life. • These residues may cause the dying person to attach him or herself to past memories, hopes, regrets, etc., thus interfering with the soul’s liberation. • The practice of meditation is the most effective way of resolving these conflicts, and shedding these desires, frustrations and attachments, both positive and negative.

  26. The soul, on its journey of passage, must pass through and escape the earth’s magnetic field. • Those souls who do not are called ghosts. One of the advantages of cremation is that it denies the soul this vehicle of attachment. • The Guru speaks of the cycle of reincarnation, the 8.4 million species of beings, and the ways in which actions, karmas, bind the soul to this cycle. The soul is not subject to death—death is merely the turning of the page in the book of the soul’s journey from God, through the created universe, back to God again.

  27. The Guru instructs us to live with the constant remembrance of death, living the RehitMaryada. • We are to act and interact as if we are about to die in the next instant. We are to maintain a preparedness of mind, a meditative attitude, so that, if we were to die in the next instant, we would be ready to answer for our actions in the Presence of the Dharm-Raj, the Lord of Dharma, the Righteous Judge. • Regret and attachment will bind us to the cycle of reincarnation, while meditative balance and detachment will allow us to pass through the stages of release, as our soul finds its way to its true home in God.

  28. Upbringing and Socialization in Sikh Culture • Values- • Sikhs believe that children are capable of learning from a very young age and that they must be given guidance. Obedience to authority, passivity, and interdependence are highly valued. Childhood is viewed as a sensitive time period where children are moldable. Thus, the environment, especially the parents, are believed to play an important role in child development." • Mothers and Infants • Sikh mothers enjoy much physical closeness to their babies. They often carry them close to their bodies and breastfeeding is the norm. Many Indian mothers massage their babies daily using either oil or ghee. Co-sleeping during the early years is another characteristic of the close mother-infant relationship.

  29. Discipline Discipline is often strict and children are taught to obey their parents. Mothers are the primary disciplinarians. Scolding, yelling, slapping, and spanking are considered appropriate and necessary for socializing children. Some mothers feel that beating should be used to punish the most severe offenses. • Preference for Boys Families show preference for male over female children. A female child is often seen is a financial drain on a family. In addition to paying for her living expenses, the girl's family must pay for her wedding and sometimes dowry, but after she is married all her future income goes to her new family.

  30. As a consequence, a boy is more likely to be well feed as well as receive schooling and health care. The deprivation of girls--through insufficient breastfeeding and denial of food and health care--leads to malnutrition and death. This mistreatment, along with infanticide and the aborting of female fetuses, has led to 10 million women "going missing" in India's population. • Life Style of Boys and Girls Due to emphasis of sikh guru’s teachings men wear turbans. Women can wear duppattas and turban on their head. Both genders are restricted to cut their hairs. The notion of carrying turban means responsibility. They are capable to carry their responsibilities.

  31. Girl is having dupatta on her head while boy has turban on his head.

  32. Funeral in sikhism In Sikhism a funeral ceremony is called "AntamSanskaar,"

  33. The Final Moments of Life in Sikhism • Sikh family encourages their ailing loved one to focus on the divine by reciting "Waheguru," or suitable passages of scripture from the Guru Granth Sahib. • After a death occurs, funeral arrangements are made by the family which includes conducting a SadharanPaath, or a complete reading the Guru Granth Sahib.

  34. Preparation of the Deceased • body of the deceased Sikh is bathed and attired in clean clothing. • If the person dies just after taking bath, the repeated bath is not required. • hair is covered with a turban or traditionalscarf . • The karkars, or five articles of faith worn by a Sikh in life, remain with the body in death. They include:

  35. Kachhera, an undergarment. Kanga, a wooden comb. Kara, a steel or iron bracelet. Kes, uncut hair (and beard). Kirpan, a short sword.

  36. Cremation • In Sikhism cremation is the usual method for disposal of remains regardless of the age of the deceased. • ASikhism funeral involves an open air funeral pyre. • After reaching the cremation ground till the pyre is ready recite "BaniJaP" and if there is again a time gap then reciting of Gurbani or the 'SatnamWaheguru' Jaap should continue.

  37. Samigriand Desi Ghee are simply required to keep the atmosphere fragrant so that the absurd smell from the burning body of the deceased may not arise and disturb the occasion. • Lay down the dead body upon the pyre, when the pyre is ready. offer Ardaas, then Son, daughter, any member of the family or of the assemblage may lit the pyre. • Sit nearby and start reciting Gurbani or elaboration from Gurbani- pertaining to the occasion till the pyre gets fully flamed. Conclude it reciting the Bani 'Sohila' and offering Ardaas‘. • Reach the nearby Gurdwara, recite the Banititeled "Sad" Page 923 or "Allahnia" or have some Gurbani description in accordance to the occurrence. Recite six stanzas affixed out of Bani "Anand Sahib", distribute KarahParsad (sacred pudding) and disperse.

  38. In the States where there is no provision for such proceedings, cremation takes place in a crematory at a mortuary, also called a funeral home. • Within abroad there are only electrical funerals and not the pyre system just like in India. As per the Gurbani directive, this all hardly matters. • This all is a matter of our respect, love and sentimental touch towards the deceased. Otherwise, so far as the disposal of the body is concerned: this all has, nothing to do with the departed soul. • The funeral home releases the cremated remains of the deceased to the family.

  39. Disposal of Ashes • With the probable gap of three or four days, so that the pyre may get cool. Sprinkle one or more buckets of plain water upon the ashes. So that any burning or hot part from the pyre may not harm the persons, while collecting the pyre. • Collect the whole bulk of ashes in some bag or pot and then immerse it, in some nearby flowing waterusually its done in Kiratpur sahib.

  40. Funeral Services • In Sikhism, a funeral ceremony may take place at any time of day or night, as is convenient and be either formal or informal. Sikh funeral services are meant to induce detachment and promote resignation to the will of the divine. A service may be conducted: • Out of doors. • In a gurdwara. • At a funeral home. • At the home of relatives. • Every Sikh funeral service, however simple or complex, consists of reciting the final prayer of the day, KirtanSohila, and the offering of Ardas. Both may be performed prior to cremation, the scattering of ashes, or otherwise disposing of remains.

  41. The SadharanPaath • The ceremony in which the SadharanPaath is begun, may be held when convenient, wherever the Guru Granth Sahib is present: • Hymns are sung from the scripture of the Guru Granth. • The first five and final verses of "Anand Sahib," the "Song of Bliss," are recited or sung.

  42. The first five verses of Sikhism's morning prayer, "Japji Sahib," are read aloud to begin the SadharanPaath. • Hukam, or random verse, is read from the Guru Granth. • Ardas, a prayer, is offered. • Prashad, a sacred sweet, is distributed. • Langar, a meal, is served to guests. • While the Sadharanpaath is being read, the family may also sing hymns daily. Reading may take as long as needed to complete the paath, however formal mourning does not extend beyond ten days.

  43. After life • Sikhs believe that upon death one merges back into the universal nature, just as a drop of rain merges back into the ocean. Individuality is lost. Sikhs do not believe in heaven or hell. Heaven can be experienced by being in tune with God while still alive. Conversely, the suffering and pain caused by ego is seen as hell on earth. • Sikhism believes in reincarnation, which is that after death a person is born again depending on the actions he/she has committed in his/her last life. As soul is present not only in human but all living creatures (but is only conscious when in the human form), one can be born in any life form depending on the actions he or she committed in their past life.

  44. Sikh philosophy overlaps with Hindu philosophy on many points, one being the concept of transmigration of the soul and the circle of Chaurasi Lakh, the 8.4 million lifetimes. Chaurasi Lakh means 8,400,000. This is the number of different joons (lifetimes or possible lifeforms) that constitute the circle of transmigration. Sikhism teaches that the soul reincarnates when the body dies. Sikhs believe that good, or bad actions, determine the life form into which a soul takes rebirth.

  45. Attitudes of loved ones

  46. Life is like a show. • Accept the bitter truth. • Life is false and death is true. • Departure from loved ones is sad feeling. It is the natural phenomena. But for continue life person has to follow the order of god. • No can escape from this reality.

  47. “TeraBhanaMithaLage” A true sikh follow the order of god .

  48. Attitudes of dying person before and after death

  49. Before death • Sikh encourage to live with proud and die with proud • From escape the cycle of life and death ,should do the meditation without lust, greed, attachment, ego and anger. • There is haven and hell on earth as according to their deeds in form of reward and punishment.

  50. Nothing is permanent. • Who came on earth , all have to go according to sequence wise.(Johayiasohchalsijakhovaria) • Sikh do not say to weep over death. • Never live for their body.It is made up of five elements and after death this body again merge into five elements.