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Psychological First Aid Symptoms and Psychological First Aid Preschool through Second Grade Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

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Psychological First Aid


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symptoms and psychological first aid preschool through second grade
Symptoms and Psychological First AidPreschool through Second Grade

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

symptoms and psychological first aid preschool through second grade3
Symptoms and Psychological First AidPreschool through Second Grade

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

symptoms and psychological first aid third through fifth grade
Symptoms and Psychological First AidThird through Fifth Grade

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

symptoms and psychological first aid third through fifth grade5
Symptoms and Psychological First AidThird through Fifth Grade

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

symptoms and psychological first aid third through fifth grade6
Symptoms and Psychological First AidThird through Fifth Grade

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

symptoms and psychological first aid adolescents sixth grade and up
Symptoms and Psychological First AidAdolescents (Sixth Grade and Up)

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

symptoms and psychological first aid adolescents sixth grade and up8
Symptoms and Psychological First AidAdolescents (Sixth Grade and Up)

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

initial consultation first stage opening
Initial ConsultationFirst Stage: Opening
  • Establish the focus
  • Free drawing and storytelling
  • Traumatic reference

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

initial consultation second stage trauma
Initial ConsultationSecond Stage: Trauma
  • Reliving the experience
  • - Emotional release
  • - Reconstruction
  • - Perceptual experience
  • - Special detailing
  • - Worst moment
  • - Violence / physical mutilation

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

initial consultation second stage trauma11
Initial ConsultationSecond Stage: Trauma
  • Coping with the experience
  • - Issues of human accountability
  • - Inner plans of action
  • - Punishment or retaliation
  • - Fears of counter-retaliation
  • - Challenge to child’s impulse control
  • - Influence of previous trauma
  • - Traumatic dreams
  • - Future orientation
  • - Current Stresses

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.

initial consultation third stage closure
Initial ConsultationThird Stage: Closure
  • Recapitulation
  • Underscore realistic fears
  • Universalize the child’s responses
  • Describe expectable course
  • Acknowledge child’s courage in undertaking the interview
  • Invite child critique of consultation
  • Proper leave-taking

Adapted from: Pynoos RS, Nader K: (1988) Psychological first aid and treatment approach to children exposed to community violence: Research implications. Journal of Traumatic Stress 1: 445-473.